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Timothy K. Broschat

Germination rate was significantly improved by removing the thick, hard endocarp from Butia capitata (pindo palm) fruit. Time to 50% of final germination rate was not affected by endocarp removal. Afterripening storage did not improve germination rate or time. Germination at 104 °F (40 °C) was superior to that at 93 °F (34 °C).

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María A. Equiza and David A. Francko

Freezing temperatures are one of the major constraints for palm cultivation in temperate regions. Severe cold damage can destroy plant tissues and may severely reduce water conduction in the stem ( Larcher and Winter, 1981 ; Meerow, 2005 ). When

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Donald R. Hodel, A. James Downer and Dennis R. Pittenger

The root system of palms is adventitious and composed of numerous, small- to medium-sized, nonwoody roots. All primary roots are of a more or less constant diameter and arise independently from an area at or near the base of the stem called the root

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Severn C. Doughty, Daniel J. Gill and David C. Blouin

Landscape palms were surveyed for cold damage 8 to 10 months after the coldest weather episode recorded this century in the New Orleans, La., area. Fourteen genera and 21 species of palms totaling 9039 individuals were surveyed and assigned to one of three condition categories within six geographic areas. Area 1, north of Lake Pontchartrain, was not a reliable area for the majority of the 21 species found. South of Lake Pontchartrain, areas 2-6 were considered statistically better for overall palm survival, with area 3 best followed by areas 4, 2, 5, and 6. Although species survival depended somewhat on area, 10 species were found to be statistically reliable south of Lake Pontchartrain: Brahea armata, Chamaedorea microspadix, Phoenix canariensis, Rhapidophyllum hystrix, Sabal mexicana, S. minor, S. palmetto, Sabal spp., Sabal spp. seedlings, and Trachycarpus fortune;. Two species, Phoenix reclinata and Phoenix spp., were found to be marginal and seven species were found to be unreliable: Butia capitata, Chamaerops humilis, Livistona chinensis, Rhapis excelsa, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Washingtonia filifera, and W. robusta. Due to low individual numbers, survival for three species could not be reliably estimated: Arenga engleri, Phoenix dactyfifera, and Serenoa repens.

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Monica L. Elliott

For many years, the palm disease spectrum in the Florida landscape had been relatively stable, with lethal yellowing (a phytoplasma disease caused by ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae’ subgroup 16SrIV-A) and ganoderma butt rot (a fungal disease

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A. James Downer, Donald R. Hodel and Maren J. Mochizuki

Palms are arborescent monocotyledons that do not usually branch along their stem. Consequently, pruning landscape palms is essentially the removal of inflorescences and leaves from the lower portion of the canopy or, in the case of multiple trunked

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Timothy K. Broschat

Palms are increasingly popular as landscape plants in tropical to warm temperate regions of the United States and as interiorscape plants elsewhere. While visible nutrient deficiency symptoms are relatively uncommon on dicot trees found in

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Timothy K. Broschat

have positive effects on plants subjected to diseases and other physiological stresses, but there are relatively few published papers documenting these effects of this element in palms ( Turner, 1981 ; von Uexkull, 1982 , 1991 ) and none relating to

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Dennis R. Pittenger, A. James Downer, Donald R. Hodel and Maren Mochizuki

Palms are important constituents of many landscapes in arid and semiarid regions where irrigation is deemed necessary for their successful establishment and maintenance. Reducing or limiting water applied to urban landscapes is a primary focus in

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Timothy K. Broschat and Monica L. Elliott

The use of commercial microbial inoculants, especially arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, has been widely promoted for woody plants, including palms (Arecacaeae), transplanted into the landscape. AM fungi may promote plant health and development and