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Manuela Zude-Sasse, Ulrich Hartmond, Georg Ebert, and Peter Lüdders

Soil flooding reduces partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the root zone and often results in a reduction in photosynthesis and growth. In greenhouse studies, rooted stem cuttings of the mango (Mangifera indica L.) rootstock selection 13/1 were exposed to anoxia by saturating the root zone with N2 for up to 52 h. Reduced pO2 in the root zone affected the energy status of the roots and particularly enhanced the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated pyridine nucleotide charges—the ratio of reduced Nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotides [NAD(P)H] to total Nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide content [oxidized NAD(P)+ plus NAD(P)H]—that drive the redox reaction rates in cell metabolism. Also, the pyridine nucleotide charges in leaves were enhanced, while the photosynthetic rate decreased following reduction in pO2 in the root zone. During up to 4 h of reduced pO2, the ratio of internal CO2 concentration in the mesophyll to ambient CO2 concentration was unchanged. This implies a nonstomatal influence on photosynthesis. In addition, light saturation of photosystem II occurred at lower irradiance (470 μmol·m-2·s-1) resulting in reduced maximum photochemical efficiency below that of the high pO2 controls. After 28 h of reduced pO2, NAD(P) charges in the leaves returned to normal, diminishing its potential effect on net photosynthetic rate.

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Roberto López-Pozos, Gabino Alberto Martínez-Gutiérrez, Rafael Pérez-Pacheco, and Miguel Urrestarazu

sustainable strategy Intl. J. Mol. Sci. 11 1999 2009 Cooper, A. 1996 The ABC of NFT 2° ed Grower Books London, UK Drew, M.C. 1983 Plant injury and adaptation to oxygen deficiency in the root environment: A review Plant Soil 75 179 199 Drew, M.C. 1992 Soil

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Kehua Wang and Yiwei Jiang

injury occurs as a result of oxygen deficiency. Oxygen deficiency is one of the primary root stresses in the waterlogged or flooded soils ( Kozlowski, 1984 ). Short-term or even transient waterlogging could have adverse effects on the growth of dry land

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Guodong Liu, D. Marshall Porterfield, Yuncong Li, and Waldemar Klassen

-making process pertaining to corn and vegetable planting. Because a corn seed has a volume six to 10 times larger than that of wheat or rice, corn seed is more likely to suffer from oxygen deficiency than the latter two species as measured (data not shown

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Erin J. Yafuso and Paul R. Fisher

permeability barriers to gas-exchange with the rhizospere: A microelectrode and modeling study with Phragmites australis Ann. Bot. 86 687 703 Armstrong, W. Drew, M.C. 2002 Root growth and metabolism under oxygen deficiency, p. 729–761. In: Y. Waisel, A. Eshel

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Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Jamal Y. Ayad, and Yahia A. Othman

substrate (particles >4 mm) inhibited growth possibly by creating excessively large pores. In fine particle substrate (relatively low air-filled porosity), oxygen deficiency in root rhizosphere might occur when plants exhibit high growth rates and intensive

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Junqin Zong, Yanzhi Gao, Jingbo Chen, Hailin Guo, Yi Wang, Fan Meng, Yiwei Jiang, and Jianxiu Liu

and the atmospheric environment ( Armstrong, 1979 ). Oxygen deficiency is one of the primary root stresses in the waterlogged or flooded soils ( Kozlowski, 1984 ). As a result, plant metabolism at various growth stages can be significantly affected due

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Diana Niñirola, Juan A. Fernández, Encarnación Conesa, Juan A. Martínez, and Catalina Egea-Gilabert

nutrient solution to enrich it with oxygen. There are, however, significant differences in sensitivity to oxygen deficiency in the rooting medium among plant species, even among cultivars ( Visser et al., 2000 ). This is because in some plants, the low

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Jong-Seok Park and Kenji Kurata

experiment ( Fig. 2 ). However, DO in the microbubble condition was slightly higher than that in the macrobubble condition ( Fig. 2 ), probably because of the excellent gas dissolution ability of microbubbles ( Takahashi et al., 2003 ). Oxygen deficiency in

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Uttam K. Saha, Athanasios P. Papadopoulos, Xiuming Hao, and Shalin Khosla

considered well-aerated in comparison with soil, events of oxygen deficiency are common ( Allaire et al., 1996 ). This is because greenhouse crops grown on rockwool (or other soilless media) generally have higher growth rate and hence increased rate of root