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Adam Newby, James E. Altland, Charles H. Gilliam, and Glenn Wehtje

, further increasing costs of hand removal. Svenson et al. (1997) listed products that provide pre-emergence liverwort control in summary form (no data). They ( Svenson et al., 1997 ) described pre-emergence control with oxyfluorfen, oryzalin, isoxaben

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D. W. Wells, R. J. Constantin, and J. W. Wells

Six prodiamine treatments, three applied alone and three applied in combination with methazole, were compared with oxyfluorfen/oryzalin, oxadiazon, and controls (weeded and non-weeded) on ornamental and weed species. Ornamentals included green liriope, Asiatic jasmine, serissa, gardenia, `Needlepoint' holly, Japanese yew, `Prostrata' juniper, and `Carror' azalea. Weeds grown in separate containers were goosegrass, crabgrass, pigweed, and prostrate spurge. At 13 days after treatment (DAT), oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen/oryzalin caused some contact burn on liriope, and the injury persisted until the 81 DAT rating. Methazole/prodiamine treatments caused chlorosis on gardenia leaf tips, with plants recovering by 61 DAT. These combinations also resulted in slight injury to azalea at the first rating, but the injury disappeared by the second rating. Control of goosegrass, crabgrass, and pigweed was good to excellent with all chemical treatments. Control of spurge using oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen/oryzalin decreased at 81 and 100 DAT.

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D. W. Wells, R. J. Constantin, and J. W. Wells

Six prodiamine treatments, three applied alone and three applied in combination with methazole, were compared with oxyfluorfen/oryzalin, oxadiazon, and controls (weeded and non-weeded) on ornamental and weed species. Ornamentals included green liriope, Asiatic jasmine, serissa, gardenia, `Needlepoint' holly, Japanese yew, `Prostrata' juniper, and `Carror' azalea. Weeds grown in separate containers were goosegrass, crabgrass, pigweed, and prostrate spurge. At 13 days after treatment (DAT), oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen/oryzalin caused some contact burn on liriope, and the injury persisted until the 81 DAT rating. Methazole/prodiamine treatments caused chlorosis on gardenia leaf tips, with plants recovering by 61 DAT. These combinations also resulted in slight injury to azalea at the first rating, but the injury disappeared by the second rating. Control of goosegrass, crabgrass, and pigweed was good to excellent with all chemical treatments. Control of spurge using oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen/oryzalin decreased at 81 and 100 DAT.

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James E. Klett, David Hillock, and David Staats

Herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. During the 1995 season six preemergent herbicides [(in kg·ha–1) Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 4.5 and 9.1; Isoxaben (Gallery 75DF), 1.1 and 2.3; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 4.5 and 9.1; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 3.4 and 13.6; Oryzalin (Surflan AS), 2.8 and 4.5; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G) 4.5 and 9.1, were tested on Callirhoe involucrata, Delosperma nubigenum, Dendranthemum ×morifolium `Jennifer', Festuca cinerea `Sea Urchin', and Gypsophila paniculata `Fairy's Pink'. Isoxaben (both rates) resulted in visual phytotoxicity symptoms and sometimes death to Dendranthemum. Oxadiazon (9.1 kg·ha–1) and Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (both rates) resulted in plant chlorosis and necrosis to Delosperma soon after herbicide application, but plants outgrew herbicide damage. Napropamide (both rates), applied to Delosperma, resulted in less dry weight when compared to some of the other herbicide treatments. Oryzalin (4.5 kg·ha–1) resulted in visual phytotoxicity and less plant dry weight to Festuca. Data analysis revealed no significant differences in Callirhoe and Gypsophila. In general, most herbicides controlled weeds effectively.

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James E. Klett and David Staats

Herbicides were applied to container grown landscape plants and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. Three preemergent herbicides were applied including: Oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.54 and 9.08 kg/ha, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) at 3.41 and 6.81 kg/ha and Oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.27 and 4.54 kg/ha. There was also a weedy and non-weedy control. The plant species included: Syringa vulgaris (Common Lilac), Wisteria sinensis (Chinese Wisteria), Phlox paniculata (Garden Phlox) and Dahlia hybrid (Garden Dahlia). They were all grown in number one containers in a media of soil, spaghnum peat moss, and plaster sand (1:2:1 by volume). All herbicides tested controlled weeds effectively with no phytotoxicity except with Phlox paniculata. Oryzalin resulted in a phytotoxic effect on Phlox paniculata at both the 1x and 2x rates.

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Joseph DeFrank and Charles R. Clement

Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae) is being evaluated for production of fresh heart of palm in Hawaii. Precocity, yields, and weed control were evaluated in response to woven black polypropylene mat (control), oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, and paraquat. Control plots attained 100% of plants harvested by 26 months, followed by oxyfluorfen (97.5%), oryzalin (77.5%), and paraquat (60%). Estimated heart of palm yields (3731 plants/ha) were similar with oxyfluorfen 1.2 kg a.i./ha (707 kg·ha–1), polypropylene mat (612 kg·ha–1), oxyfluorfen 0.6 kg a.i./ha (600 kg·ha–1), and oryzalin 4.5 kg a.i./ha (478 kg·ha–1). Based on precocity, yields, and weed control efficiency, the performance rating of these weed control treatments was mat ≈ oxyfluorfen > oryzalin > paraquat. Chemical names used: 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene (oxyfluorfen); 1,1′-dimethyl-4-4′-bibyridinium ion (paraquat).

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James E. Klett and David Staats

During the 1999 season, preemergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scotts Ornamental Herbicide II) 3 and 6 lb ai/A, Napropamide (G) (Devrinol) 3 and 6 lb ai/A, Oryzalin (Surflan) 2 and 4 lb ai/A, Oxadiazon (Ronstar) 4 and 8 lb ai/A, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) 3 and 6 lb ai/A, Prodiamine (Barricade) 0.65 and 1.3 lb ai/A, Pendimethalin (Scotts Ornamental Weedgrass Control) 2 and 4 lb ai/A, Trifluralin (Treflan) 4 and 8 lb ai/A. Herbicides were applied to Penstemon mexicali `Red Rocks'™, Osteospermum barberiae compactum `Purple Mountain'™, Gazania linearis `Colorado Gold'™, Agastache rupestris, Diascia integerrima `Coral Canyon'™, and Zauschneria arizonica. All plant and herbicide combinations did not result in any significant decline in plant growth. All herbicides provided good weed control.

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K.V. Sharman

Four granular formulations of preemergence herbicides-oxadiazon, oxadiazon in combination with simazine, dichlobenil, and oxyfluorfen + oryzalin-were evaluated for weed control and phytotoxic effects on 10 species of container-grown Australian rain forest plants. Herbicides were applied at half and at one and two times the manufacturer's recommended rate. Oxyfluorfen + oryzalin, oxadiazon, and oxadiazon + simazine controlled all weed species at half the recommended rates (1.0 + 0.5, 2.0, and 2.0 + 0.5 kg·ha-1, respectively) with no phytotoxic effects after 10 weeks to nine of the 10 rain forest species tested: broad-leafed lilly-pilly [Acmena hemilampra (F. Muell. ex Bailey) Merr. and Perry], red ash [Alphitonia excelsa (Cunn. ex Fenzl) Reisseck ex Benth.], rusty bean [Dysoxylum rufum (A. Rich.) Benth.], macaranga [Macaranga tanarius (L.) Muell. Arg.], fibrous satinash [Syzygium fibrosum (Bailey) T. Hartley and Perry], Queensland golden myrtle [Metrosideros queenslandica L.S. Smith], cluster fig [Ficus racemosa L.], corduroy tamarind [Arytera lautereriana (Bailey) Radlk.], and celerywood [Polyscias elegans (F. Muell and C. Moore) Harms]. Dichlobenil depressed plant growth of red ash and failed to control bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta L.) and green amaranth (Amaranthus viridus L.), even at twice the recommended rate (4.0 kg·ha-1). All herbicides applied at half the recommended rates produced minor to moderate plant injury within 5 weeks of the first application to corduroy tamarind and northern silky oak [Cardwellia sublimis F. Muell.]. A second application 10 weeks after the first caused no significant plant injury to corduroy tamarind but resulted in severe plant injury to northern silky oak. This finding validates the previously reported sensitivity of Proteaceous spp. to preemergence herbicides. Chemical names used: (2-tert-butyl-4-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-Δ2-1,3,4 oxadiazoline-5-one) (oxadiazon); (2-chloro-4,6-bisethylamino-1,3,5-triazine) (simazine); 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene (oxyfluorfen); and 3,5-dinitro-N4,N4 -dipropylsulfanilamide (oryzalin).

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James E. Klett, Laurel Potts, and David Staats

During the 1998 season, preemergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oryzalin (Surflan 40AS), 0.36 and 0.72 kg a.i./ha; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 0.54 and 2.16 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scott's OH II), 0.54 and 1.09 kg a.i./ha; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha. Herbicides were applied to Phalaris arundinacea `Picta', Scabiosa caucasica, Sedum × `Autumn Joy', Pennisetum setaceum `Rubrum', Salvia argentea, Penstemon × mexicali `Red Rocks', Osteospermum barberiae v. compactum `Purple Mountain', and Gazania linearis `Colorado Gold'. Phytotoxicity symptoms (visual defects) were apparent with Napropamide on Phalaris (at both rates) but recovered by the end of season. All herbicides provided good weed control.

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Scott Dunn, David Staats, and James E. Klett

During the 1996 season, pre-emergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oryzalin (Surflan 40AS), 0.36 and 0.72 kg a.i./ha; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 0.54 and 2.16 kg/ha; Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scott's OH II),0.54 kg a.i./ha; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha. Herbicides were applied to Campanula carpatica, Dianthus gratianopolitanus, Gaillardia × `Baby Cole', Penstemon × `Husker's Red', and Phlox subulata `Emerald Blue'. Phytotoxicity symptoms (visual defects and less height) were apparent with Oryzalin on Penstemon (at both rates) and on Phlox (0.72 kg a.i./ha). Weed control was significantly less with Trifluralin and Napropamide when compared to the other herbicides.