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Chao Gao, Rui Yang, and Deyi Yuan

In angiosperms, the ovule is the precursor of the seed and the site of embryo sac development. In turn, female reproductive unit development, double fertilization, and embryo and endosperm growth occur in the embryo sac. Thus, the ovule has an

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Weiguang Yi, Justin A. Porter, and Nadav Ravid

in pomegranate is to increase the number of arils per fruit rather than to promote more extensive aril enlargement. Large fruit were found to contain upward of 1000 arils per fruit. Each aril is derived from a single ovule in which an independent

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María Engracia Guerra, Ana Wünsch, Margarita López-Corrales, and Javier Rodrigo

). The ovary contains two ovules, and fertilization of at least one of them is required for fruit set, because Prunus species are unable to bear fruit parthenocarpically ( Hartmann and Neümuller, 2009 ; Sedgley and Griffin, 1989 ). One of the two

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M.K. Ehlenfeldt and M.R. Hall

T 286, a rabbiteye blueberry selection from a `Delite' × `Tifblue' cross, generally has been regarded as producing semi-seedless fruit. A comparison of nonpollinated flowers of T 286, `Delite', and `Tifblue' showed no differences in ovule count, and comparisons of ovules at 10, 20, and 40 days from manual cross-pollination showed no obvious evidence of embryo abortion. Manually cross-pollinated flowers contained 85, 60, and 38 seeds per fruit for `Delite', `Tifblue', and T 286, respectively. Open-pollinated fruit of T 286 had a seed count similar to that of open-pollinated `Tifblue' but possessed significantly heavier fruit. The number of seed in T 286 and `Tifblue' indicates a tendency toward parthenocarpy.

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Wei Zhou, Xiaoming Wang, Jianhua Chen, Liangming Chen, Zhongquan Qiao, and Huijie Zeng

anamorphosis of the androecium, weak vascular bundle formation, abnormal anther wall development, and undehisced anthers. Similarly, during ovule development, any disruption results in immature and infertile ovules. The major features of aborted ovules include

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Alberto C.Q. Pinto, Suzanne M. Dethier Rogers, and David H. Byrne

The influence of medium formulation, methods of ovule support, and ovule perforation on in vitro growth of immature peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] embryos (4.0 to 8.7 mm long) was investigated. Maximum embryo dry weights were attained with vermiculite support, ovule perforation, and 10% sucrose in the medium. At high sucrose levels, all three tested media (Monnier, modified Murashige and Skoog, or modified Stewart and Hsu medium) performed similarly. Adding IAA and kinetin to culture media did not enhance embryo growth. Using the vermiculite support system, small embryos of early maturing peach cultivars, obtained at fruit maturity, were cultured successfully and used as maternal parents in breeding programs. Chemical name used: indole acetic acid (IAA).

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Yerko M. Moreno and Anita Nina Miller

Some cultivars of prune (i.e. `Brooks') consistently set good crops while others (i.e. `Italian') are erratic bearers. Fall-applied ethephon increases fruit set. Ovule longevity has been hypothesized to be an important factor in fruit retention. The effects of the cultivar and fall ethephon application on ovule longevity were determined.

Ethephon (0 and 500 mg·l-1) was applied to `Italian' and `Brooks' prune trees at the 50% leaf drop stage. The following spring, flower buds were emasculated and covered to prevent pollination. Ten flowers were sampled every two days from anthesis until 20 days after anthesis (DAA). Flowers were fixed in FAP and ovule longevity determined using fluorescence microscopy. Ovule longevity was longer in `Brooks' than `Italian'. At 20 DAA, all of the `Brooks' flowers still had viable ovules. Only 40% of the `Italian' flowers had viable ovules. The `Italian' flowers excised from ethephon-treated trees had at least one non-senescent ovule at 17 DAA. Ethephon prolonged ovule longevity in `Italian' prune flowers. No effect of ethephon was observed on the ovule longevity of the `Brooks' prune.

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Yerko M. Moreno and Anita Nina Miller

Some cultivars of prune (i.e. `Brooks') consistently set good crops while others (i.e. `Italian') are erratic bearers. Fall-applied ethephon increases fruit set. Ovule longevity has been hypothesized to be an important factor in fruit retention. The effects of the cultivar and fall ethephon application on ovule longevity were determined.

Ethephon (0 and 500 mg·l-1) was applied to `Italian' and `Brooks' prune trees at the 50% leaf drop stage. The following spring, flower buds were emasculated and covered to prevent pollination. Ten flowers were sampled every two days from anthesis until 20 days after anthesis (DAA). Flowers were fixed in FAP and ovule longevity determined using fluorescence microscopy. Ovule longevity was longer in `Brooks' than `Italian'. At 20 DAA, all of the `Brooks' flowers still had viable ovules. Only 40% of the `Italian' flowers had viable ovules. The `Italian' flowers excised from ethephon-treated trees had at least one non-senescent ovule at 17 DAA. Ethephon prolonged ovule longevity in `Italian' prune flowers. No effect of ethephon was observed on the ovule longevity of the `Brooks' prune.

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D.J. Gray, J.A. Mortensen, CM. Benton, R.E. Durham, and G.A. Moore

Ovules of seedless bunch grapes (Vitis spp.) fertilized by controlled pollination increased in size during berry development. More ovules cultured 10 days or 60 to 70 days after pollination became brown compared to those cultured at 20 to 40 days. Cultured ovules developed with and without endosperm. Globular to torpedo stage embryos were recovered. More embryos and plants were recovered from ovules cultured at 40 or 60 days than at 10 or 20 days after pollination. Pollen parent significantly affected both embryo and plant recovery at certain sampling times. BA incorporated into medium significantly increased embryo germination percentage. Electrophoretic analysis of glucosephosphate isomerase in progeny showed that 67% to 88% were hybrids of controlled crosses. Of four vines that fruited thus far, two were seedless. Seedless progeny had smaller seed traces than either parent. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA).

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Richard T. Olsen, Thomas G. Ranney, and Zenaida Viloria

A series of studies were conducted to determine medium components necessary for ovule and embryo culture of ×Chitalpatashkentensis Elias & Wisura hybrids in order to improve recovery of interploid crosses. Ovules were collected at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after pollination (WAP) from selfed tetraploid × Chitalpa (S) and tetraploid × Chitalp × diploid Catalpabignonioides Walt. (3×) hybrids. Excised ovules were placed in petri dishes with Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium and 0.7% agar, with or without coconut-water (2%) and three sucrose concentrations (20, 40, or 80 g·L-1). No ovules germinated for either cross in any treatment at 2, 3, and 4 WAP. Selfed ovules germinated at 5 WAP, in both 20 and 40 g·L-1 sucrose. At 6 WAP, 3× ovules germinated in 20 g·L-1 sucrose. Coconut water provided no apparent benefit. Embryos were apparent at 6 WAP, so a new study was initiated to compare ovule vs. embryo culture at this sample date. Excised embryos germinated in greater percentages than ovules, in all treatment combinations at 6 WAP. Germination in 80 g·L-1 sucrose was observed only for S embryos without coconut water. Greatest 3× germination (16.7%) was observed for embryos in 20 g·L-1 sucrose without coconut water. A final study was conducted to investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on embryo germination. Embryos were harvested at 7 WAP for both crosses and grown in SH medium supplemented with 20 g·L-1 sucrose and 0, 1, 2, or 4 μm GA3. The addition of GA3, regardless of concentration, increased germination from 30.6% to 99.1% for S embryos and from 11.1% to 99.1% for 3× embryos.