industry ( Polakowski et al., 2011 ) that noted some lack of awareness of the problems that arise from monocultures and the potential role of educators in overcoming this lack of awareness. Risks associated with overplanting come from lack of genetic
Maureen M.M. Fitch, Paul H. Moore, Terryl C.W. Leong, Leslie Ann Y. Akashi, Aileen K.F. Yeh, Susan A. White, Amy S. Dela Cruz, Lance T. Santo, Stephen A. Ferreira, and Leslie J. Poland
Gynodioecious papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings in commercial cropping systems in Hawaii are typically multiple-planted and thinned upon flowering to a single hermaphrodite because seedlings segregate for sex expression. Use of clonally propagated hermaphrodites would eliminate the over-planting practice and may provide other advantages. Yields of clonally propagated hermaphrodites were compared with single- and multiple-planted seedlings in three fields on two islands in Hawaii. Cloned hermaphrodites were either rooted cuttings or in vitro micropropagated plants. Clonally propagated plants bore ripe fruit 1 to 3 months earlier than thinned seedlings and had significantly higher early and cumulative yields. At each site, cumulative yields of thinned seedlings never reached the same level as those of clonally propagated plants. The yield benefit from clonally propagated plants was greatest at Keaau, the lowest sunlight and least productive test site.
Nicholas Polanin, Madeline Flahive DiNardo, William T. Hlubik, and Barry Emens
New Jersey has two active quarantines currently under the jurisdiction of the USDA's Cooperative Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) Eradication Project. Encompassing just over twenty (20.2) square miles, these quarantines are located in the northeastern and central coastal regions of the state, in close proximity to the ports of New York, Newark, and Elizabeth. Public education and media outreach have been instrumental in confirming the presence of ALB in New Jersey, as both quarantines are the result of citizens' reports. Twenty five personnel have been directly assigned to this eradication effort, with outside contractors taking up the remaining effort. Nearly 33,000 trees have been inspected, resulting in 11,000 (33%) removals of infested or high-risk host species trees. Major losses have occurred in populations of Norway and red maple, London planetree, and American elm, species which have received widespread praise (and unfortunate over-planting) for their tolerance of urban planting sites. Regulatory Contracts (597) and Compliance Agreements (137) were necessary to formalize the quarantine and to create strong working partnerships between the USDA, municipalities, and industry to gain access to all trees and to control the movement of all “green material” in the quarantine areas. Municipalities currently cooperating in the New Jersey Community Forestry Program have begun offsetting this major deforestation and canopy cover loss with the planting of 2,545 nonhost trees, with full reforestation expected over the next several years. In addition, >22,000 trees have been treated with Imidacloprid as a possible deterrent to any activity or spread of ALB in the Garden State.
Chris A. Martin, Sean A. Whitcomb, and Jean C. Stutz
number of factors, including overplanting and human aesthetic preferences ( Martin, 2008 ; Martin et al., 2003 ). The impact that frequent shearing of foliage from landscape shrubs has on the below-ground allocations of carbon to roots is not well