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Sonja M. Skelly and Jayne M. Zajicek

Project GREEN (Garden Resources for Environmental Education Now) is a garden program designed to help teachers integrate environmental education into their classroom using a hands-on tool, the garden. The objectives of this research project were to 1) develop an interdisciplinary garden activity guide to help teachers integrate environmental education into their curricula and 2) evaluate whether children developed positive environmental attitudes by participating in the activities. Students participating in the Project GREEN garden program had more positive environmental attitude scores than those students who did not participate. Second-grade students in the experimental and control groups had more positive environmental attitudes than fourth-grade students. In addition, this research found a significant correlation between the number of outdoor related activities students had experienced and their environmental attitudes.

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Jemma L. Hawkins, Kathryn J. Thirlaway, Karianne Backx, and Deborah A. Clayton

psychosocial factors including stress levels ( Starkweather, 2007 ). Researchers have argued that outdoor activities such as gardening may have stress-buffering properties as a result of the opportunity for contact with nature. Pretty (2004) describes three

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Danielle E. Hammond, Amy L. McFarland, Jayne M. Zajicek, and Tina M. Waliczek

% ( National Center for Health Statistics, 2010b ). In a study conducted on children under the age of 13 years, it was found that only ≈0.5 h per week was spent in outdoor activities such as gardening, picnicking, walking, and hiking, whereas ≈12 h per week

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Amy L. McFarland, Danielle E. Hammond, Jayne M. Zajicek, and Tina M. Waliczek

PACOR. Such an instrument would allow researchers to better understand the factors influencing children's outdoor recreation and suggest programs for changing the recent decline in outdoor activity in children. Materials and methods The assessment tools

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Sin-Ae Park, Moon-Kyoung Cho, Mung Hwa Yoo, Soo-Yun Kim, Eun-Ae Im, Jong-Eun Song, Jin-Cheol Lee, and In Gun Jun

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a horticultural activity program on the emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior, and scientific investigation abilities and attitudes of kindergarteners. A total of 336 children aged 5 to 7 years in public and private kindergartens and day care centers in Incheon, South Korea, participated in a 24-session horticultural activity program. This program included indoor and outdoor activities such as planting seeds, transplanting plants, making and applying eco-friendly fertilizer, watering, harvesting, using plants to make crafts, and cooking with produce. It was designed to improve the emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior, and scientific investigation abilities and attitudes of kindergarteners. Each session lasted an average of 50 minutes and was held once per week. The results of the study showed that the 24-session horticultural activity program improved the emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior, and scientific investigation abilities and attitudes of the children (P < 0.05). Satisfaction with the program was very high among both the children and their teachers and parents. Future studies should consider exploring the effects of horticultural activity programs on children in different age groups.

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A-Young Lee, Seon-Ok Kim, and Sin-Ae Park

This study aimed to investigate elementary school students’ needs and preferences regarding urban agriculture. In total, 1268 students in grades 4 to 6 at four elementary schools in Seoul, South Korea, participated in the study. A 21-item questionnaire was developed and distributed in each school by trained researchers for 3 weeks in Oct. 2017. More than 73.7% of the students reported having an awareness of and need for urban agriculture, and 86.8% (N = 1048) indicated their participation intention. Students noted needing urban agriculture for scientific inquiry and recommended including a learning activity in urban agriculture (35.4%, N = 400) for psychological stability and stress reduction (20.9%, N = 236), and for leisure and hobby purposes (16.2%, N = 183). Students reported participating in urban agriculture activities in indoor and outdoor spaces (33.8%, N = 423) for more than 30 minutes and less than 60 minutes (42.0%, N = 525) twice per week (40.2%, N = 501) with friends (72.9%, N = 818). Preferred urban agriculture indoor activities were planting plants (21.8%, N = 822), arranging flowers (20.9%, N = 788), and making craftwork using plants (18.9%, N = 714). Harvesting (20.8%, N = 790), watering (15.1%, N = 570), and planting transplants (13.1%, N = 493) were preferred outdoor activities. Other preferred activities included playing with livestock (22.4%, N = 884), cooking with the harvested crops (21.3%, N = 805), and feeding livestock (17.2%, N = 650). The female students demonstrated greater perception, experience, awareness of the necessity, and willingness to participate in urban agriculture compared with male students (P = 0.01). The lower the grade, the more students perceived the necessity of urban agriculture (P < 0.001). The results of this study can provide basic data for the practical development of urban agriculture programs for elementary school students.

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Kwan-Suk Lee, and Ki-Cheol Son

laboratory settings ( Doyon et al., 2001 ; Kawakami et al., 1992 ; McLaughlin et al., 2001 ). The K4b 2 calorimeter is a portable system that is proper to measure outdoor activities such as gardening and it has the same validity and accuracy as the Douglas

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, and 86.8% indicated their intention to participate. Preferred indoor activities were planting plants, flower arranging, and making crafts using plants. Harvesting, watering, and planting transplants were the preferred outdoor activities. Other

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Bo-Young Kim, Sin-Ae Park, Jong-Eun Song, and Ki-Cheol Son

activities also reduce inappropriate behavior and stress in children with intellectual disabilities ( Doxon et al., 1987 ; Kang, 1998 ; Sim, 2007 ) and enhanced their self-concept ( Han, 2007 ). Moreover, outdoor activities like soccer or fishing in green

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kindergartens and day care centers in South Korea participated in a 24-session horticultural activity program. This program included indoor and outdoor activities such as planting seeds, transplanting plants, making and applying eco-friendly fertilizer, watering