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Neil O. Anderson and Richard T. Olsen

by Burbank to achieve his world status as the Father of American Ornamental Breeding. Table 1. A vast array of beauty: ornamental flower crops from Abutilon to Zinnia (common, scientific, and cultivar names) bred by Luther Burbank, year introduced

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Rosanna Freyre

The Ornamental Breeding Program at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) was initiated in 1998, aiming to develop new or improved vegetatively propagated cultivars. Initially, breeding focused on Anagallis monelli (Pimpernel). At the time, only one blue and one orange cultivar (`Skylover Blue' and `Sunrise') were grown commercially. Main breeding goals were to develop plants with more compact habit and earlier flowering in the spring. In 2002, the first two UNH cultivars were released as Proven Selections™: Anagallis`Wildcat Blue' and `Wildcat Orange'. We have also developed breeding lines with new pink, violet, lilac, and white flower colors that are currently in industry trials. Studies on genetics, biochemistry, and anatomy of flower color in A. monelli have been performed and molecular studies are in progress. Breeding of Nolana and Browallia started in 2000 and UNH lines are currently in industry trials. Nolana is comprised of over 80 species native to desert areas of Peru and Chile. Only two cultivars, N. paradoxa`Bluebird' and `Snowbird', and interspecific hybrid `Blue Eyes' are currently commercially available. We now have several Nolana species at UNH representing a wide germplasm base. Based on ornamental potential, some species have been selected for breeding, aiming to develop sterile interspecific hybrids. Studies to break seed dormancy to optimize germination rates are in progress, as well as research on floral development, which is being conducted in collaboration with Peruvian researchers. Interspecific hybridizations have been used in Browallia to develop breeding lines with new or improved traits than those available from seed cultivars.

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Toru Arisumi

Abstract

Hybrids among African, Indian, and New Guinea Impatiens were euploids and sterile. All but a few developed into normal mature plants. Classification of certain hybrid traits showed 115 mid-parental, 75 either seed- or pollen-parental, and 17 resembling neither parent. Data from phenotypic analysis of hybrids and parents suggested that the following phylogenetic trends could have been conditioned by dominant or partially dominant genes: from equal to unequal petals, flat to hooded dorsal petal, racemose to epedunculate inflorescence, nearly free to markedly fused lateral petals, and lower sepal and a filiform spur to bucciniform or saccate lower sepal. Spiral phyllotaxy was dominant over whorled. Crosses thought to be useful in ornamental breeding were I. auricoma × I. sultani ‘Elfin White’ or New Guinea species for yellow flowers, I. uguenensis × New Guinea or I. flaccida for drought tolerance, and I. flaccida × I. repens or ‘Elfin White’ for double flowers.

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Li Jiang, Yun-wen Wang, and Bruce L. Dunn

. wilfordii , yet the profuse flowering makes it a potential parent for ornamental breeding through embryo rescue. Breeding potentials. The common name of the family Caryophyllaceae is carnation family or pink family; however, pink color is not a prevailing

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Torn Arisumi

Abstract

Seedlings were obtained from incompatible crosses and seifs of certain African and Indian Impatiens by culturing excised embryos and ovules in vitro after fertilization in vivo. Selfed seedlings of I. campanulata Wight, I. epiphytica G. M. Schulze, I. hookeriana Am., and I. pseudoviola Gilg. were obtained by embryo and ovule cultures. Hybrid seedlings of I. hookeriana × I. campanulata were derived from embryo culture. Few to several hybrid seedlings each of I. flaccida alba Arn. × I. repens Moon, I. uguenensis Warb. × I. epiphytica, and I. uguenensis × I. flaccida alba were developed from cultures of 5- to 16-day-old ovules. Some ovules from 11 out of 57 incompatible crosses cultured in vitro grew and germinated. Except for I. hookeriana selfed progenies resembled their parents in gross morphology and breeding behavior. I. hookeriana selfed seedlings had smaller flowers and less pollen than their parents. Most hybrids exhibited blended parental characteristics, and all were sterile. Four interspecific hybrid progeneis are reported for the first time.

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Yalong Qin, Yiming Chen, Weibing Zhuang, Xiaochun Shu, Fengjiao Zhang, Tao Wang, Hui Xu, Bofeng Zhu, and Zhong Wang

Yew (Taxus L.), an ornamental plant with some natural anticancer effects, is the main genus in the Taxaceae family. Its origins can be traced back to the Tertiary Period. Taxus includes 15 closely related species that are primarily scattered throughout the cool and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Liu et al., 2018). The yew is an evergreen tree that is commonly used in landscaping because it is slow-growing, tolerant of stressful conditions, and usually has a long life. There are numerous garden varieties of yew and yew hybrids, and they exhibit a wide

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T.E. Bilderback, D.J. Cagle, and P.R. Fantz

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Jack E. Staub, Matthew D. Robbins, Steven R. Larson, and Paul G. Johnson

Over half of the world’s population lives in an urban setting (Worldwatch Institute, 2007), where ornamental plants provide environments that encourage the presence of wildlife and plant diversity (Damschen et al., 2006) and offer a myriad of social and economic benefits (Lohr et al., 2007; Wolf, 2004). However, continued reduction in limited natural resources worldwide increasingly necessitates novel approaches for the incorporation of low maintenance and low-input plant materials into urban landscapes (Cook, 1996; Dewey et al., 2006).

The popularity of ornamental grasses for use in urban landscapes,

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

Caladiums (Caladium ×hortulanum Birdsey, Araceae Juss.) are commonly grown in pots, hanging baskets, and other container types, or planted in the landscape as accent and border plants (Evans et al., 1992). They are valued for a wide array of leaf colors, coloration patterns, and shapes. The majority of commercially available caladium plants are forced from tubers. Florida growers supply the great majority of the caladium tubers used in the United States and in the world. Frequent introduction of new cultivars is important to both the Florida tuber-producing industry and landscape and greenhouse/nursery industries. New

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Lisa Alexander

Production and use of sweet olive (Osmanthus armatus), fragrant tea olive (O. fragrans), holly tea olive (O. heterophyllus), and fortune’s osmanthus (O. xfortunei) as a landscape plant is currently limited to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Hardiness Zones 7 to 10, and nursery growers wish to extend the range of these species into colder climates. To provide recommendations to growers and landscapers and inform breeding efforts for cold-hardiness improvement, a replicated trial was conducted in a USDA Hardiness Zone 6b/7a transition zone. Fifteen cultivars and two unnamed accessions representing four species were evaluated for growth, stem necrosis, and flowering in a pot-in-pot production system from 2015 to 2017. One-half of the plants in each cultivar were moved to winter protection each November and returned to the field each May. There were significant differences in growth and cold-hardiness among cultivars. Percent increase in the growth index after three growing seasons for winter-exposed accessions of sweet olive, fortune’s osmanthus, fragrant tea olive, and holly tea olive averaged 867%, 1175%, 155%, and 6361%, respectively. Percent stem necrosis in May 2017 for sweet olive, fortune’s osmanthus, fragrant tea olive, and holly tea olive averaged 1.1%, 2.7%, 44.8%, and 20.2%, respectively. The most cold-tolerant accessions based on stem necrosis and growth index of winter-exposed plants were ‘Kaori Hime’, ‘Hariyama’, ‘Shien’, ‘Head-Lee Fastigate’, and ‘Rotundifulius’ holly tea olive, ‘San Jose’ fortune’s osmanthus, and ‘Longwood’ sweet olive. Of these cultivars, Kaori Hime, San Jose, and Longwood flowered under winter-exposed conditions. All fragrant tea olive cultivars were damaged by winter exposure. ‘Fodingzhu’ was the only fragrant tea olive cultivar that flowered each year under winter-exposed conditions. Evaluation and breeding efforts are continuing to extend the range for production and growth of this genus.