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Andrea Luvisi, Alessandra Panattoni, Roberto Bandinelli, Enrico Rinaldelli, Mario Pagano, Barbara Gini, Giorgio Manzoni, and Enrico Triolo

have interesting applications in ornamental shrubs such as roses due to their high market value, wide distribution, and relative phytosanitarian certification ( Krczal, 1998 ). Some potential applications of RFID techniques could include procedures for

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Julián Miralles-Crespo, María J. Sánchez-Blanco, Alejandra Navarro G., Juan J. Martínez-Sánchez, Jose A. Franco L., and Sebastián Bañón A.

focused on fruit trees, in which they have found practical application in irrigation scheduling ( Fereres and Goldhamer, 2003 ; García-Orellana et al., 2007 ; Nortes et al., 2005 ). Fewer studies in this respect have been carried out in ornamental shrubs

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E.C. Boehm, T.D. Davis, and J.O. Kuti

Relative water usage of four species of container-grown woody ornamental shrubs (Buxus japonica (Japenese boxwood), Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas sage), Ligustrum japonica (ligustrum) and Pittosporum tobira wheeleri (dwarf) pittosporurm)), normally used for home landscaping in south Texas, were evaluated by comparing water consumption and frequency of watering with growth rates and horticultural quality after six months growth in containers. Growth rates were determined by the difference in plant height and leaf area from the control unwatered plants and were used to characterize the suitability of ornamental shrubs for xeric landscapes. While frequency of watering had no significant effects on plant height, only ligustrum and dwarf pittosporum plants watered on weekly basis showed positive change in leaf area. There was considerable leaf regrowth in Texas sage plants after initial leaf loss. Of all the shrubs tested, dwarf pittosporum plants watered biweekly used less water to maintain their horticultural quality.

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Calvin Chong and R.A. Cline

Four deciduous ornamental shrubs {`Coral Beauty' cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri C.K. Schneid.), `Flaviramea' dogwood (Cornus sericea L.), `Lynwood' forsythia (Forsythia ×intermedia Zab.), and `Variegata' weigela [Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC.]} were grown in trickle-irrigated containers with 100% pine bark (control) or with 10 other pine-bark-amended media, including two sources [Noranda Forest (NF) and Quebec and Ontario (QO)] of raw paper mill sludge mixed at 15 % or 30% (by volume). All species grew equally well or better in the sludge-amended media than in the control or other nonsludge media. Cotoneaster and forsythia grew more in NF sludge media than in corresponding QO media due primarily to the greater quantities of N and other nutrients released from the NF sludge.

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Marie-José Côté and Lisa Leduc

species ( MacLatchy, 1996 ). Japanese barberry ( Berberis thunbergii DC.) is an ornamental shrub appreciated for its hardiness and attractiveness but falls under the Canadian government prohibition of importation and domestic movement of barberry species

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Sara Spiegel, Dan Thompson, Aniko Varga, and Delano James

An apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolate was detected by TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR in an ornamental dwarf flowering almond (Prunus glandulosa Thunb.). This plant, maintained at the Centre for Plant Health, Sidney, B.C., Canada, has been showing transient leaf symptoms during the spring seasons. A 390-bp fragment and a 1,350-bp product, in the RNA polymerase and the coat protein viral coding regions, respectively, were amplified by RT-PCR from the infected plant. A sequence comparison of the 390-bp fragment of this ACLSV isolate (designated as AL1292) with other published isolates, revealed a similarity of 81% to 84% at the nucleotide level and 88% to 100% at the amino acid level. In contrast to other ACLSV isolates, AL1292 has an exceptionally narrow range of experimental herbaceous and woody hosts, as determined by mechanical and graft inoculation assays. These standard bioassays may not be effective for the detection of the AL1292 isolate because of its limited host range. The results we report in this paper confirm P. glandulosa as a natural host of this virus. Currently it is not known how ACLSV is spread, other than by bud-grafting and possibly by root grafts. The use of virus-tested source plants for the preparation of planting material will minimize its spread.

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Inmaculada Vila, Ester Sales, Javier Ollero, Jesús Muñoz-Bertomeu, Juan Segura, and Isabel Arrillaga

Successful propagation of Nerium oleander L. (oleander) was achieved by in vitro methods. Shoot cultures were initiated from seedlings of wild-growing plants and from shoot apices of adult plants belonging to the commercial cultivars Splendens Giganteum, Revanche, and Alsace. Axillary shoot breaking from shoot tips excised from these cultures required the presence of either 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ). The higher number of axillary shoots from juvenile material was obtained by culturing shoot tips from BA-pretreated material derived from seedlings on a modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SHM) supplemented with BA or TDZ (average of 3.9 shoots per explant with a mean length of 10.4 mm) and when the media were supplemented with 8.8 μM TDZ (average of 3.5 shoots per explant with a mean length of 7.3 mm) or 4.4 μM BA (average of 3.3 shoots per explant with a mean length of 12.3 mm). Among cultivars, cv. Revanche showed best shoot proliferation rates, especially when explants were cultured on Woody Plant Medium (average of 3.2 shoots per explant with a mean length of 10.2 mm). Adventitious bud differentiation from oleander leaves is also reported. Leaves excised from seedling-derived shoot cultures responded better than those from adult plant-derived shoot cultures (40% versus 5%, respectively). Bud differentiation required the presence of TDZ in the SHM medium, although shoot development was only achieved on transference of explants to media without TDZ but supplemented with BA and indoleacetic acid (IAA) or BA, kinetin, and IAA. Axillary and adventitious shoots were easily rooted (99%) and successfully (95% to 100%) transferred to soil.

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Deborah Dean, Phillip A. Wadl, Xinwang Wang, William E. Klingeman, Bonnie H. Ownley, Timothy A. Rinehart, Brian E. Scheffler, and Robert N. Trigiano

escaping cultivation and hybridizing with the natively occurring V. dentatum (J. Feely, personal communication). This caveat necessitates the availability of a reliable method for identification of this popular ornamental shrub and its hybrids. A group

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

Hibiscus is a genus belonging to Malvaceae, which represents ≈250 species of trees, shrubs, and herbs ( Van Laere, 2008 ). Rose-of-sharon or althea ( H. syriacus ) has been a staple ornamental shrub in American gardens, prized for its

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Amy L. Shober, Kimberly A. Moore, Nancy G. West, Christine Wiese, Gitta Hasing, Geoffrey Denny, and Gary W. Knox

sacrificing plant growth and quality. Materials and methods Plant materials and experimental design. Three ornamental shrub species (‘Alba’ indian hawthorn, sweet viburnum, and ‘RADrazz’ rose) were selected for evaluation across a range of N fertilization