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Sonali R. Padhye and Judith K. Groninger

Ornamental grasses have gained increasing popularity not only in the landscapes, but they have also become prominent components in mixed containers ( Cameron, 2004 ). Ornamental grasses comprise plants within Poaceae (grass family) and

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Yuxiang Wang, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Chaoyi Deng, Yi Wang, and Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

salt tolerance of landscape plants varies highly with species and/or cultivars ( Chen et al., 2017 ; Liu et al., 2017 ; Sun et al., 2015a ). However, limited research-based information on the salt tolerance of ornamental grasses is available

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Youping Sun and Alyssa Lanae Palmer

use in landscapes irrigated with reclaimed water or in salt-prone areas. Ornamental grasses have recently received considerable attention in the U.S. green industry. Their production and landscape use has expanded during the past two decades. An

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S. Christopher Marble, Matthew T. Elmore, and James T. Brosnan

( Dunning, 2014 ; Maddox et al., 2007 ; Voigt, 2002 ; Weston, 1990 ). Although many of the most widely planted ornamental grass species are relatively resistant to disease, insect pests, or both ( Thetford et al., 2009 ; Wilson and Knox, 2009 ), weed

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Joanna Hubbard and Ted Whitwell

Twelve ornamental grasses from the genera Calamagrostis, Cortaderia, Eragrostis, Erianthus, Miscanthus, Sorghastrum, Spartina, Panicum, and Pennisetum were evaluated for tolerance to the postemergence herbicides fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-P, and sethoxydim at 0.4 kg a.i./ha. Calamagrostis was uninjured by fenoxaprop-ethyl as measured by visual injury ratings, height, and foliage dry weight. Greenhouse studies evaluated the tolerance of three Calamagrostis cultivars to fenoxaprop-ethyl rates of 0.4 to 3.2 kg a.i./ha with no observed visual injury from any treatment. However, the expansion rate of the youngest Calamagrostis leaf was reduced linearly with increasing herbicide rates each day after application. The highest rate (3.2 kg a.i./ha) reduced the leaf expansion rate by 1 day and all other rates by 3 days after treatment. Leaf expansion rate differed between Calamagrostis cultivars at different times after herbicide treatment. Dry weight of Calamagrostis arundinacea `Karl Foerster' was reduced at 4 weeks after treatment but not at 10 weeks after treatment. Chemical names used: (±)-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy)phenoxy]propanoate (fenoxaprop-ethyl); (R)-2-[4-[[5-trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop-P); 2[1-(ethoxy imino)butyl]-5[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim).

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Traci Armstrong, J.E. Wolfe III, J.C. Bradley, and J.M. Zajicek

Ornamental grasses are currently growing in popularity and are being used in parks, public plantings, and commercial landscapes. This study was developed to determine the esthetic appeal of 12 ornamental grasses and evaluate public attitude toward the use of these grasses in low-maintenance landscapes. Grasses were selected for this evaluation using the following criteria: recommendations of experts in the ornamental grass field; material used in the nursery trade; and recommendations in popular literature. Two field sites were prepared and planted in the Spring 1991 and 1992. Both sites were maintained and irrigated to enhance the survivability of the grasses. The survey was conducted on several dates in the Fall 1992. Participants responded to questions regarding ornamental grass use, and the need for research on water conservation in landscapes. In addition, participants were asked to rank the individual grass species as to their accept-ability for landscape use. The results of the survey indicate that visual aesthetics are a major factor in public acceptance of landscape materials. In addition, the majority of ornamental grasses tested in this study were acceptable alternatives for low-maintenance landscapes with native and introduced species equal in performance.

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Joanna Hubbard and Ted Whitwell

Ornamental grasses are popular landscape plants and often encounter turf encroachment or other grass weed problems. Several postemergence grass herbicides are available for use in turf and ornamentals and herbicide tolerance information is needed for ornamental grass species. Fifteen ornamental grasses including species from the genera Calamagrostis, Cortaderia, Eragrostis, Erianthus, Miscanthus, Sorghastrum, Spartina, Panicum and Pennisetum were field planted in Clemson, SC in May 1989 and Festuca species in November, 1989. Herbicide treatments were fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-P and sethoxydim at 0.4 kg a.i.·ha-1 applied 4 weeks after planting and an untreated control. Height and injury evaluations were taken at weekly intervals and plants were harvested 10 weeks after treatment. Fenoxaprop-ethyl treated Calamagrostis and Festuca species treated with all herbicides were the only treatments that were the same as untreated controls in terms of % injury, height and dry weight. Three ornamental Calamagrostis species were evaluated in a greenhouse study to determine the level of tolerance to fenoxaprop-ethyl at 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 kg a.i.·ha-1. No visual injury symptoms were seen on any treatments as compared to untreated controls but growth rates of the youngest leaves did vary among species shortly after treatment.

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Joanna Hubbard and Ted Whitwell

Ornamental grasses are popular landscape plants and often encounter turf encroachment or other grass weed problems. Several postemergence grass herbicides are available for use in turf and ornamentals and herbicide tolerance information is needed for ornamental grass species. Fifteen ornamental grasses including species from the genera Calamagrostis, Cortaderia, Eragrostis, Erianthus, Miscanthus, Sorghastrum, Spartina, Panicum and Pennisetum were field planted in Clemson, SC in May 1989 and Festuca species in November, 1989. Herbicide treatments were fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-P and sethoxydim at 0.4 kg a.i.·ha-1 applied 4 weeks after planting and an untreated control. Height and injury evaluations were taken at weekly intervals and plants were harvested 10 weeks after treatment. Fenoxaprop-ethyl treated Calamagrostis and Festuca species treated with all herbicides were the only treatments that were the same as untreated controls in terms of % injury, height and dry weight. Three ornamental Calamagrostis species were evaluated in a greenhouse study to determine the level of tolerance to fenoxaprop-ethyl at 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 kg a.i.·ha-1. No visual injury symptoms were seen on any treatments as compared to untreated controls but growth rates of the youngest leaves did vary among species shortly after treatment.

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Alan Zuk, Qi Zhang, Ted Helms, and Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

Many native and ornamental grasses can provide year-long beauty and interest including autumn and winter ( Plowes, 2012 ) to residential, business, municipal, and natural landscapes. They can be used as specimen plants; accent plants; or for

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Mark H. Brand

Nursery production of many ornamental grasses involves potting of established liners into 8.5-L containers. Direct potting of bare root divisions into 8.5-L containers may represent a more efficient production method. Large and small divisions (based on number of tillers and volume) of eight ornamental grasses were potted directly into 8.5-L containers. The potting medium used was a 3 aged pine bark: 2 peat moss: 1 sand nursery mix (by volume), amended with dolomitic lime at 3 kg/yard3, and top dressed with Sierra 17-6-10 plus minors at 40 g/container, 8 to 9 month fertilizer. Plants were grown outdoors in a container nursery from May through September. All grasses tested performed well using the direct potting method, with 100% survival. Large divisions of Miscanthus sinensis cultivars produced plants with greater fresh weight, dry weight and number of tillers than did small divisions. Division size did not affect Miscanthus foliage or flower height but did affect number of flowers for `Graziella' and `Purpurascens'. Large divisions of Calamagrostis `Karl Foerster', a grass grown primarily for flowering, produced twice as many flowers as small divisions. Panicum virgatum and Pennisetum alopecuriodes showed signs of nutrient stress when grown from large divisions. Although a greater number of tillers was produced by large divisions of Panicum and Pennisetum, fresh weight, dry weight, flower height, and foliage height were similar to or less than that observed on plants from small divisions.