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Gayle M. Volk

in databases. Standard fields use specific ontologies, or vocabularies, in defined categories. Along with reference standards, confidence intervals, and detailed measurement methods, users have information to identify trends across years, programs

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C.L.H. Finneseth, Desmond R. Layne, and R.L. Geneve

Clonal propagation of pawpaw is currently limited to budding and grafting. A tissue-culture system to rapidly produce clonal material would be valuable for both production and preservation of germplasm. Forced scion wood, shoots from root cuttings, and seedlings were explant sources for ontologically mature, intermediate, and juvenile ages, respectively. Preliminary data indicated that nodal explants had more rapid adventitious shoot formation than shoot tip explants. Disinfestation protocols were developed for each explant source. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 10 μM BA and 0.1 μM TDZ. Within 3 weeks, 60% of the seedling explants had expanded axillary buds, while no bud expansion was observed for explants of either the intermediate or mature sources. By 6 weeks, seedling axillary shoots had elongated and were suitable for subculture. By 8 weeks, multiple adventitious buds and shoots had formed on all seedling explants. At this same time, axillary shoots began to elongate on intermediate source explants, but mature source explants appeared to be recalcitrant. Explant exudation caused medium darkening, but, by reducing the transfer interval from 4 to 2 weeks, discoloration was minimized. Mature source explants were maintained in culture and after ≈7 months, axillary bud expansion occurred in a small percentage of these explants.

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Yu Bai, Ying Zhou, Xiaoqing Tang, Yu Wang, Fangquan Wang, and Jie Yang

terms of “extracellular matrix part,” “metallochaperone activity,” and “translation regulator activity.” Fig. 3. Gene ontology ( Boyle et al., 2004 ) classification of the Isatis indigotica unigenes. In the COG classification, 23,072 unigenes were

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D. Michael Jackson, Howard F. Harrison, Robert L. Jarret, and Phillip A. Wadl

the sweetpotato ontology ( Anonymous, 2019a , 2019b ; Hualla et al., 2015 ). In addition, other efforts have been initiated to standardize data collection methods used for germplasm characterization in sweetpotato ( Anonymous, 2019c ). Phenotyping of

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Carl E. Sams, Dilip R. Panthee, Craig S. Charron, Dean A. Kopsell, and Joshua S. Yuan

microarray experiment results through the real-time PCR method in Arabidopsis thaliana . Ontology analysis. Ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed using open-share software (Onto-express, Intelligent Systems and Bioinformatics

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Heather L. Merk, Shawn C. Yarnes, Allen Van Deynze, Nankui Tong, Naama Menda, Lukas A. Mueller, Martha A. Mutschler, Steven A. Loewen, James R. Myers, and David M. Francis

well with objective measures but are not entirely consistent with each other nor amenable to quantitative analysis ( Rodriguez et al., 2011 ). The use of ontology terms has been suggested as a way to organize phenotypes in a standardized and

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Huihui Liu, Ke Cao, Gengrui Zhu, Weichao Fang, Changwen Chen, Xinwei Wang, and Lirong Wang

the association results for anthocyanin. We defined a whole-genome significance cutoff from the Bonferroni test threshold (significant genome-wide threshold: −log 10 P = 8.49, calculated by dividing 0.01 using 3,076,604 SNPs). Gene ontology (GO

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He Huang, Yuting Liu, Ya Pu, Mi Zhang, and Silan Dai

gene expression differences. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis was performed by mapping all the DEGs to the GO ( Boyle et al., 2004 ) and KEGG databases ( Wixon and Kell, 2000 ). The number of DEGs involved in each GO term and pathway

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Jianfeng Liu, Bowen Yang, Yuetong Ming, Yuchu Zhang, and Yunqing Cheng

, and they comprised 254, 251, 69, and 59 SSR-containing unigenes, accounting for 52.9%, 52.3%, 14.4%, and 12.3% of the total members, respectively. Fig. 3. The gene ontology functional classification of simple sequence repeat-containing unigenes. Note

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Zehuang Zhang, Qihua Lin, and Qiuzhen Zhong

represented cellular components were “cell part” (39.78%; 6894), followed by “cell” (39.6%; 6863), “organelle” (29%; 5027), “membrane” (22.60%; 3916), “organelle part” (12.99%; 2251), and “membrane part” (11.79%; 2043). Fig. 3. Gene ontology (GO