Onion (Allium cepa) cultivars for commercial production in eastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho are evaluated annually in replicated yield trials conducted at the Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario. Market demand has progressively called for larger bulb size and bulbs with single centers. At harvest onions were evaluated for maturity, number of bolters, and single centeredness. Cultivars showed a wide range of bulbs with only one growing point or “bullet” single centers, ranging from 1% to 57% in 2000, from 7% to 70% in 2001, and from 1% to 74% in 2002. The percentages of bulbs functionally single-centered for processing uses ranged from 18% to 88% in 2000, from 24.7% to 91.3% in 2001, and from 14.4% to 92% in 2002. Bulb yield and market grade were evaluated out of storage. Marketable yield after 4 months of storage varied significantly by cultivar from 643 to 1196 cwt/acre (72.1 to 134.1 Mg·ha–1) in 2000, from 538 to 980 cwt/acre (60.3 to 109.8 Mg·ha–1) in 2001, and from 583 to 1119 cwt/acre (65.3 to125.4 Mg·ha–1) in 2002. Averaging over cultivars, super colossal bulb size averaged 26%, 14%, and 10% in 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively.
Clinton C. Shock, Erik Feibert and Lamont D. Saunders
Clinton C. Shock, Joey K. Ishida, Eric P. Eldredge and Majid Seddigh
Potential new onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars for commercial production in eastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho are evaluated annually in yield trials conducted at the Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, Ore. Bulb yield and market grade were determined in field trials for 63 yellow onion cultivars and lines in 1996 and for 49 cultivars and lines in 1997. Marketable yield out of storage in January ranged from 478 to 1131 cwt/acre (54 to 127 Mg·ha-1) in 1996, and from 383 to 912 cwt/acre (43 to 102 Mg·ha-1) in 1997. Marketable yields of `9003C', `Seville', `El Charro', `Sunre 1430', `El Padre', `Golden Security', `Bravo', and `X 202' were greater than 1000 cwt/acre (112 Mg·ha-1) in 1996. In 1997, marketable yields of `Seville', `Bravo', `Quest', `T-433', `9003C', `Goldstar', `Superstar', `RNX-10020', `Vision', and `Sweet Perfection' were greater than 850 cwt/acre (95 Mg·ha-1). Of the 30 cultivars evaluated both years, the average marketable yields of `Seville', 9003C, `Bravo', `Quest', and `Sweet Perfection' were among the highest. Many others showed potential for high yields and merit further evaluation. In both years, most bulbs of all selections graded jumbo [3 to 4 inch (7.6 to 10.2 cm) diameter] and colossal [>4 inch (10.2 cm) diameter], and only a few cultivars had more than 2% medium-size [2.25 to 3 inch (5.7 to 7.6 cm) diameter] bulbs. Infection by neck rot (Botrytis allii Munn.) and plate rot [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (H. N. Hans.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans.] during storage was more severe in 1996 than in 1997, but in general, most cultivars showed relatively low levels of these diseases in both years. Averaged across all cultivars, bolting was evident in less than 1% of bulbs in both years.