coming to wrong conclusions about the male parent effect on the length of the juvenile period ( Santos-Antunes et al., 2005 ) and on several agronomic characteristics ( León et al., 2004a , b ) in studies performed in the olive breeding program of
Aurora Díaz, Antonio Martín, Pilar Rallo and Raúl De la Rosa
Raúl De la Rosa, Angjelina Belaj, Antonio Muñoz-Mérida, Oswaldo Trelles, Inmaculada Ortíz-Martín, Juan José González-Plaza, Victoriano Valpuesta and Carmen R. Beuzón
Compatibility among genitors has been reported to be one of the main factors for success of crosses in olive breeding programs ( Díaz et al., 2007 ). Olive compatibility has been studied through different systems including fruit set in controlled
L. León, L.M. Martín and L. Rallo
Fatty acid composition has been studied in seedlings from a diallel cross (nine families) among `Arbequina', `Frantoio', and `Picual' olive (Olea europaea L.). Variance among samples within genotype, genetic and environmental (yearly) variances, and year-to-year consistency of data were estimated. A correlation analysis of the standardized data for fatty acid composition between first and second year data was also carried out to select the most interesting genotypes as early as possible. The results showed that fatty acid composition exhibit significant differences between genotypes and years. The variance component attributable to differences between genotypes represented >60% of total variance for all the fatty acids evaluated. High correlation coefficients between the first and second year data were found for oleic and linoleic acid percentage; these correlations were slightly poorer for the other fatty acids analyzed. These results may be useful for improving the efficiency of olive breeding programs in first-stage selection on whole progeny populations.
for new specific cultivars for these new plantations has stimulated the development of breeding programs in various countries. This review summarizes the development of the current olive breeding programs in Spain. Genetic resources Exploration
Lorenzo León, Luis M. Martín and Luis Rallo
Thirteen characters were evaluated over four years in progenies from a diallel cross among the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars `Arbequina', `Frantoio', and `Picual' to determine if phenotypic correlations existed between these characters. Yield per tree, ripening date, oil yield components and fatty acid composition were recorded annually once seedlings began to flower and produce fruit. Significant correlations were found between several characters including oil yield components and fatty acids composition. Lower correlation coefficients were obtained between ripening date and oil and oleic acid content. Generally, yield was not correlated with the other characters evaluated. Principal components analysis confirmed the main correlations among characters and showed them to be independent of the parents used.
Ana Morales-Sillero, María Paz Suárez, María Rocío Jiménez, Laura Casanova, José Ordovás and Pilar Rallo
) suggested stratification at 14 °C, always in darkness and during a variable time period, depending on the cultivar, although the time should not typically exceed 6 weeks. The standard protocol used in olive breeding programs in Spain reduces the time of seed
Milad El Riachy, Luis Rallo, Raúl de la Rosa and Lorenzo León
can reach up to 13 years under natural growing conditions ( Bellini, 1993 ). This long period is the main reason for the scarcity of new olive varieties generated by olive breeding programs in comparison with other fruit species ( Barranco and Rallo
Inmaculada Moreno-Alías, Hava F. Rapoport, Rafael López, Lorenzo León and Raúl de la Rosa
during the following four years. Seed germination was carried out in Dec. 2001 and seedling growth was forced in the greenhouse according to the procedure generally used in the Córdoba olive breeding program and reported by Santos-Antunes et al. (2005
Gloria María García-Ruiz, Carlos Trapero and Francisco Javier López-Escudero
The use of continuous and natural lighting was studied to assess the resistance of 12 olive cultivars to the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae. The plants were inoculated by dipping their bare root system in a conidial suspension. ‘Frantoio’ was used as a moderately resistant control cultivar. Several evaluated cultivars were susceptible to the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae. However, six of these cultivars were moderately resistant. In most of the evaluated cultivars, continuous lighting allowed for the identification of resistant genotypes during a period that was 3 weeks shorter than that which is normally required in these assessments. This reduction was even greater for the resistant cultivars. The use of continuous lighting could thus be an important tool for use in olive breeding programs, where it is necessary to evaluate many genotypes in short durations and, therefore, to optimize time, space, and labor.
Carmen del Río and Ana M Romero
Several experiments showed that whole, unmilled olives (Olea europaea L.) could be dehydrated in 42 hours in a forced-air oven at 105 °C (221 °F), so that they could be used in determining their oil content in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyzer. After confirming that the NMR and the official Soxhlet methods estimate the same oil percentages in milled olives, linear regression analysis also showed that NMR provides the same oil percentage results with milled and unmilled fruit. This new method avoids sample manipulation before dehydrating the fruit, making it possible to work with olive samples weighing as little as 70 g (2.47 oz). It allows for processing a large number of samples in a short period of time and may be also used with unmilled fruit flesh. The method is also very useful for screening genotypes, either from germplasm banks or progenies from olive breeding programs, and for evaluating cultivars in comparative trials.