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Kaitlin Barrios, Carrie Knott and James Geaghan

Sea oats is a perennial grass native to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastal regions of the United States. It is adapted to withstand high wind velocities, sand movement, limited water or xeric situations, high evaporation rates, and extreme

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Pheonah Nabukalu and Carrie A. Knott

Sea oats, an ecological and aesthetic perennial dune grass, is planted on beaches in the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to reduce coastal erosion and restore natural ecosystems. Sea oats tolerate numerous harsh conditions and spread vegetatively in

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Carmen Valero Aracama, Michael E. Kane, Sandra B. Wilson and Nancy L. Philman

Sea oats is a perennial dune grass native to the southeastern United States. This species is commonly used for beach restoration and dune stabilization in Florida after dune systems are damaged or destroyed by tropical storms or human activity

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Nancy Phiman and Michael E. Kane

Beach stabilization by replanting dune species such as Uniola paniculata L. (Sea Oats), is an accepted practice to control erosion in the southeastern United States. Increased restrictions on collection of sea oat seed and plant material for propagation is of increasing concern. Development of micropropagation protocols for establishment and production of sea oats from donor plants of known phenotype would be useful for selecting and producing plants with commercially valuable characteristics. Terminal and lateral shoot tips (3 mm wide and 4 mm high) from containerized plants were surface sterilized and established on Linsmaier & Skoog mineral salts and organics supplemented with 87.6 mM sucrose, 2.2 μM benzyladenine solidified with 0.8% TC® Agar. Terminal tiller shoot tips were more responsive than lateral shoot tips. Four monthly subcultures were. required for stabilized shoot multiplication from culture lines established from terminal tiller shoot tips. Shoot organogenesis frequently occurred from the cut leaf surfaces of subcultured shoot clusters. Microcuttings were established ex vitro in plug cells containing sand or vermiculite.

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Carmen Valero Aracama*, Michael E. Kane, Nancy L. Philman and Sandra B. Wilson

A sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) micropropagation protocol was previously developed for 28 genotypes that favored multiplication and rooting of shoots in vitro. However, microcutting size, morphology, and acclimatization ex vitro varied considerably among genotypes. In the present study we evaluated the effect of Stage III duration on in vitro morphology, biomass production, and ex vitro survivability of easy-(EK 16-3) and difficult-to-acclimatize (EK 11-1) sea oats genotypes. After 3, 6, and 9 weeks at Stage III, survivability of microcuttings was 85%, 96% and 98% for EK 16-3, and 2%, 27% and 40% for EK 11-1, respectively. After 9 weeks Stage III, EK 16-3 microcuttings had higher shoot dry weights but lower root dry weights than in EK 11-1. Moreover, roots in EK 11-1 were fewer but longer than in EK 16-3. Leaf production was similar in both genotypes. However, leaf elongation was significantly inhibited in EK 11-1, in which 95% of the leaves were ≤ 15 mm long in contrast with EK 16-3, with 50% leaves ≥ 16 mm long after 9 weeks Stage III. Light microscopy examinations showed anatomical similarities between EK 16-3 in vitro leaves and mature ex vitro leaves. Conversely, short in vitro leaves of EK 11-1 exhibited mesophyll disruption and reduced cuticle development. Conceivably, the short leaves had limited photosynthetic competency, thereby reducing ex vitro survival of rooted EK 11-1 microcuttings.

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Bruce P. Bordelon and Stephen C. Weller

Use of in-row cover crops for weed management in first-year vineyards was investigated in two studies. In the first study, rye (Secale cereal L. 'Wheeler') was fall-planted, overwintered, then managed by three methods before vine planting. Rye was either herbicide-desiccated with glyphosate and left on the surface as a mulch, mowed, or incorporated into the soil (cultivated). Weed density and growth of grapevines (Vitis spp.) were evaluated. Herbicide desiccation was superior to the other methods for weed suppression, with weed densities 3 to 8 times lower than for mowed or cultivated plots. Vine growth was similar among treatments, but the trend was for more shoot growth with lower weed density. In a second study, four cover crops, rye, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Cardinal'), oats (Avena sativa L. 'Ogle'), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), were compared. Wheat and rye were fall- and spring-planted, and oats and vetch were spring-planted, then desiccated with herbicides (glyphosate or sethoxydim) after vine planting and compared to weed-free and weedy control plots for weed suppression and grapevine growth. Cover crops provided 27% to 95% reduction in weed biomass compared to weedy control plots. Total vine dry mass was highest in weed-free control plots, was reduced 54% to 77% in the cover crop plots, and was reduced 81% in the weedy control. Fall-planted wheat and rye and spring-planted rye plots produced the highest vine dry mass among cover crop treatments. Spring-planted rye provided the best combination of weed suppression and vine growth. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate isopropylamine salt); 2-[l-(ethoxyimino)butyl]5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim).

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Erin R. Haramoto and Daniel C. Brainard

mineralization, resulting in a flush of plant-available N ( Calderon et al., 2000 ). Incorporating a non-legume cover crop like oats tends to decrease mineralization and increase immobilization, making less inorganic N available to the following crop, at least

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Virender Kumar, Daniel C. Brainard and Robin R. Bellinder

brown mustard, and oats can be planted in spring before short-duration, late-planted vegetable crops for weed management in vegetable cropping system. Brassica cover crops can suppress weeds ( Al-Khatib et al., 1997 ; Boydston and Al-Khatib, 1994

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Youping Sun and Alyssa Lanae Palmer

limited maintenance requirements ( Wynia, 2007 ). It is grown in perennial gardens and is used for native plant landscaping, habitat restoration, and erosion control projects. Indian sea oats is also a warm-season perennial grass that thrives in partial

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Raymond Kruse and Ajay Nair

common oats ( Avena sativa ). Vegetable growers in the midwestern United States know the importance and relevance of cover crops in their cropping systems but are hesitant to use cover crops, especially in the summer. The variable climate and narrow