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Nadia Jiménez-Peña, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Ana M. Castillo-González, María T. Colinas-León, Andrew D. Cartmill, and Donita L. Cartmill

nutrients in the media solution and the physical and chemical properties of the growing media may affect the response of plants to a specific substrate and nutrient solution formulation. Tree bark is a traditionally used media for orchid cultivation in

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Youbin Zheng, Diane Feliciano Cayanan, and Mike Dixon

The use of a recirculating subirrigation system is becoming increasingly popular in the greenhouse industry. In a survey on the status of nutrient solution recirculation in Ontario, Canada, Richard et al. (2006) found that almost half of the

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Cristian Moya, Eduardo Oyanedel, Gabriela Verdugo, M. Fernanda Flores, Miguel Urrestarazu, and Juan E. Álvaro

). Many commercial greenhouses are forced to use poor-quality water with residual ions such as Cl − , Na + , SO 4 2− , and Mg 2+ , but nutrient solutions of moderately high EC are sometimes achieved by adding NaCl or major nutrients. This cultural

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Yu-Wei Liu and Chen-Kang Huang

method primarily implemented in plant factories. The method involves using nutrient solutions instead of soil to grow plants. Compared with soil-based cultivation, hydroponics requires less water and fewer nutrients and enables efficient control of

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Shannon M. Coleman, Bledar Bisha, Steven E. Newman, Marisa Bunning, and Lawrence D. Goodridge

irrigation water can be a risk with field-grown produce, and it is also a concern during greenhouse production, which typically involves soilless media. The risk associated with foodborne pathogens in irrigation water and nutrient solution is a major issue

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Dustin P. Meador and Paul R. Fisher

concentrations compared with free Cl for control of human pathogens. However, data are not available for plant pathogens. There are limited research data on the residual level of free or total Cl in the presence of nutrient solutions despite the common practice

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Ryo Matsuda, Chieri Kubota, M. Lucrecia Alvarez, and Guy A. Cardineau

in the root zone is simply, predictably, and economically achievable in greenhouse tomato hydroponics, by increasing the EC of the nutrient solution by adding sodium chloride (NaCl) ( Wu and Kubota, 2008a ) and has been commercially practiced to

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta, Paul R. Fisher, and Celina Gómez

-end-rot (BER), are not uncommon in hydroponics ( Heuvelink, 2018 ; Nederhoff, 1999 ; Peet, 2009 ). To ensure maximum yields and high-quality fruit, commercial growers typically adjust the nutrient solution depending on environmental conditions and plant

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Lucia Armin Langlé-Argüello, Gabino Alberto Martínez-Gutiérrez, Patricia Araceli Santiago-García, Cirenio Escamirosa-Tinoco, Isidro Morales, and José Raymundo Enríquez-del-Valle

tissues when moisture is restricted for an extended period of time ( Pimienta-Barrios et al., 2006 ; Seki et al., 2007 ). Supplying nutrients to plants through nutrient solutions is a basic aspect in hydroponic crops, for production or research purposes

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Eric R. Rozema, Robert J. Gordon, and Youbin Zheng

footprint. One of the difficulties in reusing nutrient solutions is the gradual accumulation of certain ions, especially Na + and Cl – , which have a range of sources and at high concentrations can be damaging to greenhouse crops. These ions are often