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Michael T. Martin Jr., Geoffrey M. Weaver, Matthew R. Chappell and Jerry Davis

A study was conducted to observe changes in mineral element concentrations within different sections of leafy stem cuttings of Hibiscus acetosella ‘Panama Red’ (PP20121) during a 21-day propagation period under standard industry propagation conditions. Concentrations of 13 mineral elements were analyzed in leaves, lower stems (below substrate), upper stems (above substrate), and roots at 3-day intervals. Before root emergence (day 0–6), P, K, Zn, Ca, and Mg concentrations decreased in the shoots (including upper stems and leaves), whereas Zn, Ca, and B concentrations decreased in the lower stems. Sulfur increase occurred in lower stems before root emergence. After rooting (day 9–21), N, P, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Ni concentrations decreased in the roots; K, S, B, and Mg concentrations increased. In the lower stems, N, P, K, S, and Zn concentrations decreased, whereas B increased. Potassium concentration decreased in the leaves; P, K, S, and Zn decreased in the upper stems. Calcium and Mg increased in leaves. This study indicates specific nutrients are important in adventitious rooting, and that it is important to analyze rooting as a function of fine-scale temporal measurements and fine-scale sectional measurements.

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Timothy K. Broschat

Hong Kong orchid tree is an outstanding flowering tree for tropical and subtropical areas, but in south Florida’s nutrient-poor sand soils, it typically develops moderate to severe K and Mg deficiency symptoms during the fall, winter, and spring months. A 3-year field experiment was conducted to determine if flowering was responsible for the development of these deficiencies and to determine if these deficiencies could be prevented by fertilization with medium or high rates of a 24N–0P–9.2K turf fertilizer (24–0–11) an 8N–0P–10K–4Mg plus micronutrients palm fertilizer (8–0–12) or a 0N–0P–13.3K–6Mg plus micronutrients palm fertilizer (0–0–16). Onset of deficiency symptoms coincided with the beginning of flowering, but leaf nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, and Mg continued to decline after flowering ceased in late January, presumably because of movement of these elements from the leaves to stem tissue. Leaf nutrient concentrations were poorly or negatively correlated with all measured plant quality variables and were poor indicators of plant quality or nutritional status. Although fertilization with a high rate of 24–0–11 or either rate of 8–0–12 increased tree height, caliper, and number of flowers, no treatment significantly decreased the severity of K and Mg deficiencies.

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Pradeep Kumar, Menahem Edelstein, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Emanuela Ferri and Giuseppe Colla

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the influence of long-term cadmium (Cd) exposure (0, 25, or 50 µm of Cd) on crop productivity, fruit quality, leaf chlorophyll content, fluorescence, and mineral composition in plants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Ikram), either nongrafted, self-grafted, or grafted onto rootstocks of tomato (Maxifort or Unifort) and eggplant (Black Beauty). Both moderate (25 µm) and high (50 µm) concentration of Cd in root environment considerably decreased the fruit yield and fruit number in response to Cd levels, whereas mean fruit weight decreased but was similar to both Cd supply levels. The fruit yield, shoot and root biomass, and leaf area (LA) were higher in plants grafted onto tomato rootstocks and especially onto Maxifort in comparison with nongrafted or self-grafted plants and especially grafted onto Black Beauty. The higher plant performance of tomato rootstock–grafted plants were related to higher chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments concentration in leaves associated with better nutrient translocation and availability (higher Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Cu) in leaves. The content of Cd was also lower in leaves and fruits of Maxifort-grafted plants. Concerning fruit quality, especially peel color, toxicity symptoms, and Cd concentration, Black Beauty followed by Maxifort-grafted plants were better than the other grafting combinations. However, plants grafted onto Black Beauty rootstock resulted in lowest fruit yield and plant growth attributes due to lower nutrient uptake and translocation indicating some incompatibility reaction between Black Beauty rootstock and Ikram scion.

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Andrés Olivos, Scott Johnson, Qin Xiaoqiong and Carlos H. Crisosto

specific nutrients provided to the tree using an otherwise complete nutrient mixture applied to the sand tanks did not always reduce the specific targeted nutrient in fruit, indicating complex interactions among nutrient translocation and use within the

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Yongqiang Qian, Deying Li, Lei Han and Zhenyuan Sun

.P. Johnson-Cicalese, J. 2000 Low-mowing tolerance in buffalograss Crop Sci. 40 1339 1343 Kaitaniemi, P. Honkanen, T. 1996 Simulating source–sink control of carbon and nutrient translocation in a modular plant

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Samuel Salazar-García, Isidro J.L. González-Durán and Martha E. Ibarra-Estrada

in the Mediterranean evergreen oak Quercus ilex Tree Physiol. 21 9 17 Colin-Belgrand, M. Ranger, J. Bouchon, J. 1996 Internal nutrient translocation in chestnut tree stemwood. III. Dynamics across an age series of Castanea sativa (Miller) Ann. Bot

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Shirin Shahkoomahally, Jose X. Chaparro, Thomas G. Beckman and Ali Sarkhosh

, leaf concentrations of most of the nutrients studied were not significantly affected by rootstock, with the exception of a few elements. Different genotypes of rootstocks can restrict nutrient translocation because of variation in xylem dimension

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Suphasuk Pradubsuk and Joan R. Davenport

, concentration throughout the season in response to rapid leaf expansion and nutrient translocation from shoot tips to leaf blades and clusters. In both years, the whole vine N content gradually increased from the three- to four-leaf stage to veraison before

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Eva Bacaicoa and Jose María García-Mina

inefficiency and ‘Ashley’ presented the highest efficiency ( Fig. 5 ). Likewise, ‘Ashley’ was able to maintain root nutrient uptake activity and nutrient translocation under conditions of Fe starvation ( Figs. 6 and 7 ). In fact, there were no clear

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Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Sung-hee Guak and Tom Forge

the growth and uptake of nutrients by apple trees at different levels of Nitrogen, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus. Acta Agr. Scandinavica 23 87 92 Hansen, P. 1980 Crop load and nutrient translocation, p. 201–212. In: D. Atkinson, J.E. Jackson, R