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D. R. Earhart, V. A. Haby, A. T. Leonard, and J. V. Davis

Soil solarization following previous N application rates of 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 kg·ha-1 as ammonium nitrate, and one cover crop of-sorghum-sudah (Sorghum bicolor var.) increased yields of turnip foliage (greens) by 3066 kg·ha-1 over the non-solarized treatment. Greater yield was obtained with 56 kg·ha-1 less N with solarization than non-solarization (112 vs 168 kg·ha-1). A blanket N application of 22 kg·ha-1 ameliorated the solarization effect on the 2nd harvest. Solarization had no significant effect on turnip leaf element concentration. Linear and quadratic increases in leaf N occurred as soil N increased. There was also a linear increase in tissue K and Mg due to solarization. No interactive effects were noted. Soil analysis showed salinity (EC) decreased and Ca increased with solarization. An increase in N rates decreased pH, NO3, and Mg, and increased soil salinity and NH4. Solarization had an interactive effect on soil salinity by increasing EC at 0 N and decreasing at 56 to 168 kg N·ha-1.

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Gladis M. Zinati

A question/answer discussion session was conducted at the conclusion of the workshop “Pest Management During Transition to Organic Farming Systems”. The following categories were used to summarize the discussion: 1) questions and answers related to cultural and biological practices and their effects under various climatic conditions, 2) recommendations for pest management, and 3) future research needs. While many tactics are available, selecting and adopting the most suitable approach depends on soil conditions of the land, location, and the availability of the resources at affordable prices. Definitely, more research studies are needed on 1) weed seed banks under various cultural practices at different regions, 2) relationships between soil nutrients, and pest control, and 3) approaches to increase profitability of organic production during the transition period.

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Danielle D. Treadwell, George J. Hochmuth, Robert C. Hochmuth, Eric H. Simonne, Lei L. Davis, Wanda L. Laughlin, Yuncong Li, Teresa Olczyk, Richard K. Sprenkel, and Lance S. Osborne

supplement slow-release organic materials to supply more rapidly soluble forms of N. Specific to nutrient management, the major issues in organic greenhouse production are to find methods to optimize synchrony between nutrient mineralization and crop demand

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Tom A. Street, Richard B. Doyle, and Dugald C. Close

rootstock growth through increasing soil pH; 2) biochar can improve apple rootstock growth through increasing soil microbial biomass and hence increase nutrient mineralization and availability; and 3) biochar can increase apple rootstock growth in

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Tom Forge, Gerry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Eugene Hogue, and Dana Faubion

nutrient mineralization. Increased microbial biomass production drives population growth of the microbivorous microfauna and increased grazing by the microfauna in turn stimulates mineralization of nutrients tied up in the microbial biomass ( Bonkowski et

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Theodore J.K. Radovich, Archana Pant, Ian Gurr, Ngyuen V. Hue, Jari Sugano, Brent Sipes, Norman Arancon, Clyde Tamaru, Bradley K. Fox, Kent D. Kobayashi, and Robert Paull

nutrient status of plants receiving compost tea: 1) extracts directly contribute plant available nutrients, 2) extracts increase soil biological activity consequently improving nutrient mineralization and plant availability, 3) extracts increase nutrient

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Bielinski M. Santos

play a significant role on nutrient mineralization, absorption, and leaching in vegetable and small fruit crops. The amount of released N varies markedly due to weather and other factors ( Fixen and West, 2002 ). The overall N use efficiency of a

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Juan L. Silva, Mandar Patel, Jelena Stojanovic, Youkai Lu, Taejo Kim, and Thomas Horgan

reflected in lower yields in the hair treatments relative to the inorganic fertilizers for the first crops, lettuce and wormwood. Hence, this and previous research ( Zheljazkov, 2005 ) suggests that unless sufficient time is allowed for nutrient

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Yuhung Lin and Yaling Qian

the greatest nutrient mineral in shoot tissue, ranging from 11,780 to 26,804 mg·kg −1 in all samples. Mean K concentration was 22,642 mg·kg −1 in KBG samples of the 10-year recycled water irrigation group, which is statistically the same as surface

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Guihong Bi, William B. Evans, James M. Spiers, and Anthony L. Witcher

organic fertilizer ( Rosen and Allan, 2007 ). It is critical and also a major challenge in organic fertilizer management to find methods to optimize synchrony between nutrient mineralization and crop demand ( Treadwell et al., 2007 ). Also, just as with