`Buttercrunch', `Grand Rapids', and `Summer Bibb' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings were grown with the nutrient film technique (NIT). The influence of two K concentrations (150 and 225 mg·liter-1) and four solution pH levels (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.5) on lettuce tipburn was investigated in four experiments. Additionally, the influence of pH on foliar nutrient concentration was examined. Even though tipburn was observed in `Buttercrunch' and `Summer Bibb' lettuce, neither K nor pH level consistently affected tipburn incidence. No tipburn was observed in `Grand Rapids'. Solution pH generally did not affect concentration of total N and NO3-N in lettuce tissue. Increasing the pH increased K concentration and resulted in increased proportions of K compared to Mg or Ca. Although the influence of solution pH on P, Ca, and Mg concentration was significant, nutrient accumulation differences were not reflected in lettuce fresh-weight differences. The influence of K solution concentration and pH on lettuce yield was not significant. Tipburn incidence in NIT-produced lettuce appears to be primarily affected by environmental conditions maintained during greenhouse growth.
Wlodzimierz Bres and Leslie A. Weston
Alan L. Wright, Tony L. Provin, Frank M. Hons, David A. Zuberer and Richard H. White
nutrient dynamics. Problems commonly associated with land compost application include nutrient accumulation in soil, leaching, and runoff. The long-term cycling of nutrients in compost-amended soils is dependent on compost quantity and quality in addition
Desire Djidonou, Xin Zhao, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Kim M. Cordasco
) determine the biomass, nutrient accumulation, and yield performance of tomato plants grafted onto disease-resistant interspecific hybrid rootstocks under greenhouse conditions without soil-borne disease pressure and 2) assess the effects of different
Steven Hill, Robert Abaidoo and Susan Miyasaka
The growth and nutrient accumulation responses of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, cv. Bun long] to varying sodium chloride concentrations were studied in an aerated hydroponic system. Vegetative propagules were grown at seven levels of NaCl (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mm) for 43 days. We estimated the NaCl tolerance threshold (95% of maximum growth) to be at 4.9 mm solution NaCl. Relative dry-matter yield decreased 1.6% per mm increase in solution NaCl above 4.9. These values for tolerance threshold and response slope led us to classify this taro cultivar as sensitive to salinity. As solution NaCl levels increased, Na concentration in petiole and root tissues increased, but not in lamina (leaf blade) tissues. This implies the existence of an effective mechanism for excluding excess Na, in spite of a lack of tolerance to solution NaCl in terms of growth response. Chloride concentration increased in all plant tissues with increasing solution NaCl levels; the greatest increase occurred in petiole tissue, and the lowest in lamina tissue, indicating some ability to partition Cl levels within the plant. Tissue concentrations of Ca and Mg, but not of K, were reduced by high solution NaCl levels.
G.A. Picchioni, M. Valenzuela-Vazquez and S. Armenta-Sanchez
Lupinus havardii Wats. (Big Bend bluebonnet) has received considerable attention as a new specialty cut flower crop. We studied the consequences of Ca fertigation on growth, water use, and mineral nutrient uptake of L. havardii (`Texas Sapphire') for 88 days in a greenhouse. Four Ca concentrations were included (as CaCl2) in the fertigation solution at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mm. Calcium supply did not affect the number of racemes produced per plant or total dry matter accumulation per plant. However, root dry matter accumulation, root: shoot ratio, net root mineral nutrient accumulation (milligrams P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe per plant; micrograms Mn, B, and Cu per plant), and the preferential allocation of mineral nutrients to roots were influenced quadratically by CaCl2 supply, increasing up to 5.0 mm CaCl2 and then decreasing at 10.0 mm CaCl2. Lack of root sink response by plants exposed to 10.0 mm CaCl2 was associated with lowest daily rate of pot evapotranspiration, probably resulting from osmotic or Cl toxicity stress. Increased root sink strength for dry matter and mineral nutrients in response to CaCl2 supply up to 5.0 mm Ca is consistent with calcicole-like behavior and the native distribution of L. havardii on xeric, calcareous soils, where root growth and expansion favoring water and mineral nutrient acquisition may be of significant adaptive value for survival. The Carelated increase in root growth was reflected in up to a 5% to 20% increase in fertilizer P and K recovery per plant. Results indicate that Ca fertilization may be an effective horticultural strategy in greenhouse production of L. havardii, particularly for matching the natural edaphic habitat of the species and thus increasing efficiency of water and mineral nutrient management.
Valéria Santos Cavalcante, Renato de Mello Prado, Ricardo de Lima Vasconcelos, Hilário Júnior de Almeida and Thais Ramos da Silva
them to nutrient accumulation at the end of their cultivation ( Costa et al., 2017 ). However, there is a need to link macronutrient deficiency with alterations in plant biological processes, such as those that affect nutrient absorption efficiency and
Seong-Tae Choi, Doo-Sang Park and Seong-Mo Kang
) equipped with a 20-mesh screen to analyze carbohydrates and inorganic elements. This analysis was conducted to assess the effect of the time for terminal bud set of water sprouts on nutrient accumulation in the shoot apex. Carbohydrates were determined
Ibukun T. Ayankojo, Kelly T. Morgan, Monica Ozores-Hampton and Kati W. Migliaccio
fertilizer was dissolved in 19 L of water for each treatment and injected into the drip lines using a pressure pump (12 VDC, 1.8 GPM; SHURflo, Cypress, CA). Crop biomass estimation, nutrient accumulation, and yield. Unless otherwise stated, all samples were
Jill C. Larimer and Dan Struve
ln Spring 1993, red oaks (Quercus rubra) were propagated from seed. From June through October, plants were fertilized twice daily with 1.4 liters of 20N–10P–20K water-soluble fertilizer solution at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm N. Destructive harvests were conducted six times at intervals from June through Dec. 1993. Leaf area, stem height, root length, root area, and dry weights of roots, stem, and leaves of harvested plants were measured and tissue nutrient concentrations were analyzed. There was no relationship between whole-plant N concentration and total plant biomass (r = 0). However, there were some linear relationships between total plant N and total plant biomass for an individual fertilizer treatment. Biomass allocation between root, stems, and leaves was very consistent across all fertilizer levels at any one harvest. Percent total N in roots, stems, and leaves also was fairly consistent across fertilizer levels. This was true at each harvest, except the first two, in which a greater percentage of total N was partitioned to the leaves and a smaller percentage was partitioned to the roots in the high (100, 200, 400 ppm N) fertilizer treatments. Whole-plant K concentrations increased with increasing fertilizer level, but decreased over time. Whole-plant P concentrations increased linearly with whole-plant dry weight in the higher (100, 200, 400 ppm N) fertilizer treatments.
Drought is a major factor limiting the growth of turfgrasses in many areas. The functional relationship of drought stress and accumulation of various ions in turfgrasses is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of drought on root growth and accumulation of several major nutrients in three tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars varying in drought tolerance (Falcon II = Houndog V > Rebel Jr). Grasses were grown in well-watered or drying (nonirrigated) soil for 35 days in a greenhouse. Drought conditions limited total root length to a greater extent for `Rebel Jr' than for `Falcon II' and `Houndog V', while specific root length (SRL) was greater in `Falcon II' and `Houndog V' than in `Rebel Jr'. Concentrations of N, P, and Mg decreased, whereas those of K, Ca, and Fe increased, in shoots of drought-stressed plants of all three cultivars. Root N was not affected, but root P decreased in `Rebel Jr', and root K decreased in all three cultivars under drought conditions. Drought reduced the proportions of N and P in shoots and increased those in roots, while increasing the proportion of K in shoots and decreasing that in roots. During drought stress, both `Falcon II' and `Houndog V' maintained higher K concentration in shoots, and `Falcon II' in roots, than did `Rebel Jr', but `Rebel Jr' and `Houndog V' had higher Fe concentration in shoots than did `Falcon II'. The higher K and lower Fe accumulations in shoots could contribute to better drought tolerance of tall fescue cultivars.