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R.K. Striegler, J.R. Morris, P.M. Carter, J.R. Clark, R.T. Threlfall and L.R. Howard

A muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) planting was established in 1996 at the Southwest Research and Extension Center in Hope, Ark., to provide information on the performance of muscadine grape cultivars in a region where cold hardiness is not a major limitation. This research evaluated harvest parameters, fruit and juice quality, and nutraceutical potential of selected muscadine cultivars grown in southwestern Arkansas. The cultivars evaluated were `Black Beauty', `Carlos', `Cowart', `Doreen', `Early Fry', `Fry', `Granny Val', `Ison', `Jumbo', `Late Fry', NC67A015-17, NC67A015-26, `Nesbitt', `Scarlett', `Southern Home', `Sterling', `Sugargate', `Summit', `Supreme', and `Tara'. Muscadine cultivars differed in productivity and fruit quality. In 2002 and 2003, juice was produced from `Carlos', `Granny Val', `Ison', `Nesbitt', `Southern Home', `Summit', and `Supreme' grapes. `Black Beauty' was also produced into juice in 2003. In 2002, `Nesbitt' grapes had the highest juice yield, 520 L·t–1 (124.6 gal/ton). `Ison' and `Supreme' juice had the highest soluble solids level. In 2003, `Granny Val' grapes had the highest juice yield, 551 L·t –1 (132.0 gal/ton). `Southern Home' juice had the highest soluble solids. The press materials of muscadine grapes were a potential source of high levels of nutraceutical compounds. Dried seeds had the highest total phenolic and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) levels followed by the dried skins, the grapes, and then the juice. The skins of the black cultivars had the highest total anthocyanins level. `Supreme' seeds had the highest total phenolic and ORAC levels while `Ison' skins had the highest total anthocyanin levels. Based on yield, harvest, and juice quality, cultivars recommended to growers in southwestern Arkansas and other areas with a similar climate include `Black Beauty', `Carlos', `Fry', `Granny Val', `Nesbitt', `Southern Home', `Summit', and `Supreme'.

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Derek W. Barchenger, John R. Clark, Renee T. Threlfall, Luke R. Howard and Cindi R. Brownmiller

Native to the southeastern United States, the muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) is commonly grown for its unique flavor, high nutraceutical content, and pest and disease resistance, which is often a limiting factor in the production of

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Derek W. Barchenger, John R. Clark, Renee T. Threlfall, Luke R. Howard and Cindi R. Brownmiller

., 2005 ; Walker et al., 2001 ). Muscadine berries have a unique flavor but are often thick-skinned and vary in color, shape, and size. The reported high nutraceutical content of muscadine grapes and products from muscadine grapes has increased consumer

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Bhimanagouda S. Patil and Ashok K. Alva

Accumulating epidemiological evidences indicate that citrus phytochemicals have prevented chronic diseases such cancer and heart diseases. To enhance nutraceutical levels, field experiments were conducted using `Ruby Red' grapefruit on Carrizo citrange rootstock to evaluate the effects of variable fertilizer rates on nutraceutical contents. The trees received annual nitrogen rates from 0 to 280 kg·ha-1 (using a 1 N: 0.25 P: 1 K blend) under optimal irrigation schedule. Subsamples of fruit were analyzed for nutraceutical levels. HPLC analysis showed that naringin concentrations of the fruit collected from the trees treated with different levels of nitrogen differ significantly, and naringin levels decreased with increased nitrogen levels. Fruit from the control treatment had 1316 mg·mL-1 of naringin compared to the fruit collected from 280 kg N/ha per year trees (1056 mg·mL -1). A similar trend was observed with tasteless flavonoid naringenin rutinoside (narirutin). Total vitamin C [ascorbic acid (AA) plus dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA)] content from the fruit collected decreased with the nitrogen levels increased. These results demonstrate that increased fertilizer rates have an influence on the nutraceutical levels; therefore, there is a potential for further investigations on fine tuning the preharvest production programs to improve the nutritional value of the fruit.

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Stephen J. Stringer, Penelope Perkins-Veazie and Donna A. Marshall

The consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables has always been known to provide essential nutrition to mankind and, both anecdotally and clinically, has been linked to the prevention or alleviation of chronic diseases. The muscadine grape, a fruit native to the southeastern U.S., contains numerous phenolic compounds that act as antioxidants and also other compounds, such as resveratrol, that acts as a chemopreventative. The concentrations of these compounds present in the muscadine grape equal or exceed that known for any other small fruit. Fruit of selected muscadine grape genotypes, including breeding lines and cultivars, were evaluated over a 2-year period to assess the existing genetic base for these nutraceutical compounds. Results demonstrated that concentrations of total phenolics, ellagic acid, and resveratrol differ significantly among cultivars and breeding lines. These results suggest that it should be possible to breed for increased concentrations of the health-promoting compounds in muscadine grapes.

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Renee T. Threlfall, Olivia S. Hines, John R. Clark, Luke R. Howard, Cindi R. Brownmiller, Daniela M. Segantini and Lydia J.R. Lawless

consumer demand for this flavorful, nutraceutical-rich fruit. In 2005, world blackberry production area was 20,036 ha and was projected to increase to over 27,000 ha by 2015 ( Strik et al., 2007 ). The increase in production can be contributed in part to

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Malkeet S. Padda and D.H. Picha

research to elucidate the mechanisms involved in higher phenolic synthesis in immature tissues would be useful to further enhance the nutraceutical value of sweetpotatoes. Literature Cited Brand-Williams, W. Cuvelier, M

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Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle and David S. Gardner

Anthocyanins have become sought-after natural products due to potential for medicinal and industrial uses. These metabolites have a number of health-promoting properties; increasing demand for nutraceuticals, fruits, and vegetables containing

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M.A.L. Smith, D. Seigler and F.E. Kandil

Polyphenolic compounds (particularly anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids) from some fruits and vegetables have significant and diverse impacts on human health preservation. While it's well recognized that some of the polyphenolics in foods we consume have a protective and proactive role against disease, very little has been known about how they accomplish this feat. A range of bioassays (in vitro and in laboratory animals) were adapted to examine compounds extracted from berry fruits, and separated into distinct fractions by vacuum chromatography. The proanthocyanidin class of compounds, as well as mixtures of proanthocyanidins and other flavonoids, were significantly bioactive against both the promotion and initiation stages of chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Potent antioxidant activity was not confined to particular fractions, but was present in several classes of compounds. Identification and characterization of the bioflavonoids is complicated both by apparent interactions between related compounds that occur together within horticultural fruits, and interferences from some substances (pectins and complex sugars) that depress observed response in bioactivity assays.

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Daniela M. Segantini, Renee T. Threlfall, John R. Clark, Luke R. Howard and Cindi R. Brownmiller

Fresh-market blackberries (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) have a growing global market, with continued release of cultivars to meet demand for consumer-quality fruit. The release of primocane-fruiting blackberry plants that produce crops on both floricanes and primocanes has expanded blackberry production. This study investigated the physiochemical attributes of fresh-market blackberries harvested from two cane types (floricane and primocane) from four primocane genotypes (APF-238, APF-268, ‘Prime-Ark® 45’, and ‘Prime-Ark® Traveler’) grown at the University of Arkansas Fruit Research Station, Clarksville in 2015 and 2016. Year-to-year differences were evident as blackberries harvested in 2016 were smaller (6 g) and less acidic (0.7% titratable acidity) than berries harvested in 2015 (8 g berries with 0.9% titratable acidity); however, soluble solids in each year were similar (≈10.2%). Differences in genotypes were also a factor. ‘Prime-Ark® Traveler’ (2015) and APF-268 (2016) had the highest berry firmness (7.8–8.3 N). In both years, APF-238 had the lowest firmness (5.7–6.0 N), highest isocitric acid (0.8–1.1 g/100 g), and highest total anthocyanins (239–353 mg/100 g). Floricane fruit harvested from ‘Prime-Ark® Traveler’ had the highest berry weights (8.3–10.4 g) in both years. Blackberries harvested from primocanes were wider (21.3–22.9 mm), had higher soluble solids (11.6% to 12.6%), and had lower titratable acidity (0.6%) when compared with floricane fruit in both years. Major year-to-year differences were found for several variables in this study, indicating that environmental effects can be substantial and growers should be aware of this influence on berries harvested from the different cane types. Evaluation of quality properties of floricane and primocane fruit of primocane plants in other locations would be valuable, particularly from areas where commercial blackberry production is established.