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Teresa Olczyk, Juanita Popenoe, Ed Skvarch and Alejandro Bolques

The Florida nursery industry generated $3 billion in farm gate sales in 2005 and is the second largest in the United States after California ( Hodges and Haydu, 2005 ). Environmental horticulture in Florida, which includes nursery and greenhouse

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Hannah M. Mathers

Container nurseries are generally more productive than field nurseries because plants can be produced faster and at higher densities. Increasingly, nursery stock is being propagated, grown, and marketed in containers. The prime biological advantage of container stock over bareroot and field-grown balled and burlapped (B&B) stock is that the root system is packaged and protected from transplant or mechanical stress; however, temperature stress limits container production. Plants overwintered in containers suffer greater winter injury than those in the ground because the roots are surrounded by cold, circulating air rather than the insulating environment of the soil. There are several methods for providing protection from cold winter temperatures that are used in the nursery industry; however, all are labor intensive, expensive and vary in effectiveness. Container stock also suffers from elevated summer root zone temperatures. Cultivar differences in the degree of summer injury have been reported. With increasing human population pressures and decreasing availability of fresh water supplies, the need for more water-efficient nursery cultural practices becomes increasingly important. Water and nutrient use efficiency are predominant factors restricting nursery container production. Cultural factors that improve root function and reduce root injury and container heat load are considered key to improving these efficiencies. This paper examines temperature stress issues and the effects of different nursery cultural environments such as conventional overwintering systems, conventional gravel production surfaces, pot-in-pot production, and retractable roof greenhouses.

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Calvin Chong

Aspects of this research were supported by Braun Nurseries, Mori Nurseries, Willowbrook Nurseries, and the National Research Council Canada, Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP).

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Benedict C. Posadas, Patricia R. Knight, Randal Y. Coker, Christine H. Coker, Scott A. Langlois and Glenn Fain

The nursery and greenhouse industry is often described as one of the fastest-growing sectors of U.S. agriculture and is inherently labor intensive ( Regelbrugge, 2007 ). To sustain robust growth in the industry, continuous improvements in the skills

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Robin G. Brumfield and Peter F. McSweeney

conducted with the assistance and support of the owners, managers, and staff from production nurseries in northern New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, and Victoria; state nursery associations from New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria; and The

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Hannah M. Mathers, Alejandra A. Acuña, Donna R. Long, Bridget K. Behe, Alan W. Hodges, John J. Haydu, Ursula K. Schuch, Susan S. Barton, Jennifer H. Dennis, Brian K. Maynard, Charles R. Hall, Robert McNeil and Thomas Archer

The nursery and landscape (Green) industry in the United States contributes $147.8 billion (Bn) to the national economy and generates 1.9 million (Mn) jobs ( Hall et al., 2005 ) with an annual payroll of greater than $3 Bn ( U.S. Census Bureau

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Cynthia Haynes, Ann Marie VanDerZanden and Jeffery K. Iles

In 2004, the U.S. green industry, which includes both production (nursery and greenhouse) and service sectors (landscape design, installation and maintenance, lawn care and tree care), generated $147.8 billion in output or sales, which translates to

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Hannah M. Mathers

We acknowledge the Oregon Department of Agriculture Nursery Research and Agricultural Research Foundation, the Horticulture Research Institute, the J. Frank Schmidt Family Charitable Trust and Valent USA Corp. for provision of funding for

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Thomas Graham and Michael A. Dixon

Marchantia polymorpha L., a common thalloid liverwort, is a significant weed species in nursery and greenhouse operations across North America and Europe, being particularly problematic in propagation houses where the environmental conditions

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Sally M. Schneider, Husein A. Ajwa, Thomas J. Trout and Suduan Gao

nurseries to meet clean propagative material regulations [ California Dept. of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), 2002 ]. MBr/Pic can effectively control soil pests over a range of soil types, temperatures, and moistures resulting in greater flexibility of use and