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George E. Boyhan, Albert C. Purvis, William C. Hurst, Reid L. Torrance, and J. Thad Paulk

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of harvest date on yield and storage of short-day onions in controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage conditions. In general, harvest yields increased with later harvest dates. Yields of jumbo (>7.6 cm) onions primarily showed a quadratic or cubic response to harvest date, first increasing and then showing diminished or reduced marginal yields. Medium (>5.1 to ≤7.6 cm) onions generally showed diminished yield with later harvests as jumbos increased. Neither days from transplanting to harvest nor calculated degree days were reliable at predicting harvest date for a particular cultivar. Cultivars (early, midseason, and late maturing) performed consistently within their harvest class compared to other cultivars for a specific year, but could not be used to accurately predict a specific number of days to harvest over all years. Only three of the eight statistical assessments of percent marketable onions after CA storage were significant with two showing a linear increase with later harvest date and one showing a cubic trend, first increasing, then decreasing, and finally increasing again based on harvest date.

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George E. Boyhan, Ray Hicks, and C. Randell Hill

This study was undertaken to evaluate natural mulches for weed control in organic onion (Allium cepa) production where current practices rely on hand-weeding or plastic mulch. Three experiments were conducted over 2 years, with two experiments conducted on-farm in different years and one experiment conducted on-station. Treatments consisted of hand-weeding or mulches of wheat (Triticum aestivum) or oat (Avena sativa) straw, bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon), compost, and needles of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and longleaf pine (P. palustris). All of the mulches with the exception of compost tended to lodge in the onion tops due to their close spacing. Wheat straw and bermudagrass hay reduced plant stand and yield. Compost settled well around the onion plants and initially smothered weeds, but over time the compost treatment became very weedy. Pine needle mulch (referred to as pine straw in the southeastern U.S.) showed the most promise with less stand loss or yield reduction, but did tend to lodge in the tops. None of these mulches were acceptable compared to hand-weeding.

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Onions (Allium cepa) produced in southeastern Georgia's Vidalia-growing region are primarily grown from on-farm–produced bareroot transplants, which are usually sown the end of September. These transplants are pulled midwinter (November–January) and are reset to their final spacing. This study was to evaluate transplant size and spacing effects on yield and quality of onions. Large transplants (260–280 g per 20 plants) generally produced the highest yield. Medium transplant size in the range of 130 to 150 g per 20 plants produced satisfactory yield while maintaining low numbers of seedstems (flowering) and doubled bulbs, which are undesirable characteristics. Smaller transplant size (40–60 g per 20 plants) have reduced yields and lower numbers of seedstems and double bulbs. Increasing plant population from 31,680 to 110,880 plants/acre can increase yield. In addition, plant populations of 110,880 plants/acre can increase yields compared with 63,360 plants/acre (industry standard), but only when environmental conditions favor low seedstem numbers. Seedstems can be high because of specific varieties, high plant population, or more importantly, in years with environmental conditions that are conducive to their formation. ‘Sweet Vidalia’ was the only variety that had consistently reduced quality and high numbers of seedstems. ‘Sweet Vidalia’ has a propensity for high seedstem numbers, which may have influenced results with this variety. A complete fertilization program that included 133 or 183 lb/acre nitrogen did not affect onion yield, regardless of variety or population density.

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Onions (Allium cepa) produced in southeastern Georgia's Vidalia-growing region are primarily grown from on-farm produced bareroot transplants, which are usually sown at the end of September. These transplants are pulled midwinter (November to January) and reset to their final spacing. This study was to evaluate sowing date, transplanting date, and variety effect on yield and quality of onions. Beginning in the first week of November, onions can be transplanted until the end of December with reasonable yield and quality. For example, in the 2003–04 season, total yield of onions transplanted on 22 Dec. 2003 did not differ from any onions transplanted on earlier dates in November or December. In the 2004–05 season, onions transplanted on 20 Dec. 2004, had lower total yield than onions transplanted in November, but were not different from onions transplanted on 4 Jan. 2005. The propensity of some varieties to form double bulbs can be reduced with later sowing and transplanting dates. Sowing the first week of October rather than the fourth week of September and transplanting in December rather than November can reduce double bulbs in some varieties.

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Joan Simó, Roser Romero del Castillo, Antoni Almirall, and Francesc Casañas

white. This cultivar is a long-day, non-storage type and its flat globe-shaped bulb weighs 149 to 172 g with white skin and flesh. This onion has low storage capacity. The flower is white and the mean 100-seed weight is 0.251 g. The incidence of the

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Bandara Gajanayake, K. Raja Reddy, Mark W. Shankle, and Ramon A. Arancibia

cambia in the stellar region, which stained very lightly, and non-storage roots based on a lignified stele section, which stained dark in color. After ≈20 DAT, storage roots were already visible by bulking of the adventitious roots and identification was

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Qingqing Duan, Ye Lin, Wu Jiang, and Danfeng Huang

lanatus ) seedlings after transplanting. Data are from 0, 2, 4, and 8 d of post-storage after light and dark storage at 15 °C and non-storage. Correlation coefficients ( r ) and the levels of significance ( P ) are shown on the panels. Dry mass is an

Open access

Subhankar Mandal and Christopher S. Cramer

India ( FAOSTAT, 2018 ). Despite producing 39% of the summer nonstorage onion ( NASS, 2017 ), onion production in New Mexico experiences substantial crop damage by FBR caused by FOC. FOC infects the roots and bulbs of onions grown in temperate and

Open access

Brian J. Schutte, Abdur Rashid, Israel Marquez, Erik A. Lehnhoff, and Leslie L. Beck

responsible for about half the total nonstorage onion produced during summer ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2021e ). In New Mexico in 2020, ≈4.15 million cwt of onion were harvested from 6200 acres ( U.S. Department

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Arthur Villordon, Julio Solis, Don LaBonte, and Christopher Clark

and increased lignification, rendering adventitious roots prone to become non-storage roots ( Togari, 1950 ). The expansion of BxNET to include other variables such as soil moisture can be accomplished by using the modular approach described by