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R. Roger Ruan, Paul L. Chen, and Simon Almaer

This paper describes the relationship between the maturity stages and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characteristics of sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The NMR parameter T2, which is the spin–spin relaxation time constant, and two conventional maturity parameters, moisture content and alcohol insoluble solids (AIS), of sweet corn samples during maturation, were determined and correlated with reference maturity indices, namely, heat units and sensory maturity scores. The relationships between T2 and the heat unit and sensory maturity score of the samples were linear, suggesting that T2 can be used to establish mathematical models for the prediction of sweet corn maturity to determine harvest time. The major advantages of using NMR are the nondestructive nature, the speed, and the simplicity of the method.

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Christopher J. Clark, Annette C. Richardson, and Ken B. Marsh

Whole-fruit proton magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Markovich cv. Miho Wase) during a 15-week period commencing 10 weeks after anthesis and continuing to maturity, and at 6 weeks after anthesis the following season. Images with long repetition times (>1600 ms) and short echo times (20 ms) provided the clearest details of anatomical changes in the peel (flavedo, albedo) and vascular system, while those with similar repetition times but longer echo times (120 ms) were best for viewing juice sac morphology within pulp segments. At 6 weeks after anthesis, images of fruits of slightly different physiological ages highlighted rapid changes in the vascular bundles and albedo tissue at this stage of development. Variation in the relaxation measurements, T1 and T2, was determined from quantitative MR images of the juice sacs in equatorial slices, and images of expressed juice from whole fruit. Seasonal measurements of T1 determined in situ (1760 ms) were significantly greater than those in juice (1413 ms). By contrast, there was no mean seasonal difference between in situ T2 measurements (360 ms) and those for juice (332 ms). No associations between trends in the MR data and total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and sugar and organic acid composition of the juice were established. Cell structure is identified as a hindrance in the use of quantitative MR imaging for probing compositional changes in solution in serial imaging studies.

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Christopher J. Clark and Douglas M. Burmeister

Development of browning induced in `Braeburn' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruit by a damaging CO2 concentration was monitored weekly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during a 4-week storage trial (0.5 °C, 2 kPa O2/7 kPa CO2). Discrete patches of high-intensity signal, distributed randomly throughout the fruit, were observed in multislice images of samples after 2 weeks of storage; these patches were eventually confirmed as being sites of browning reactions after dissection at the end of the trial. Subsequently (weeks 3 and 4), signal intensity at sites of incipient damage increased and patches enlarged and coalesced. After 2 weeks of storage, the extent of affected tissue, averaged across all image slices, was 1.5%, increasing to 15.9% and 21.3% after 3 and 4 weeks. The average rate at which tissue damage spread in individual slices was 0.81 (range: 0–3.70) cm2·d–1 between weeks 2 and 3, declining to 0.32 (range: 0–1.55) cm2·d–1 in the final week. Tissue damage induced under these conditions did not spread at the same rate at all locations within individual fruit, nor was it preferentially located toward the stem or calyx ends of the fruit.

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Valdinar Ferreira Melo, Edvan Alves Chagas, Raphael Henrique da Silva Siqueira, Olisson Mesquita de Souza, Luís Felipe Paes de Almeida, Diogo Francisco Rossoni, Pollyana Cardoso Chagas, and Carlos Abanto-Rodríguez

of computing, methods and equipment have been developed and used to evaluate the spatial distribution of root systems in the soil profile. Among these methods is a nondestructive analysis, which is performed through digitalized root images in soil

Open access

Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi and Donald S. Bailey

determine canopy fresh and dry weight. We added the fresh weight of those two plants into the total yield results to avoid subestimation. Anthocyanin and chlorophyll content indexes (nondestructive analysis) were measured on fully expanded leaves in two

Open access

Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Thomas C. Geiger, Jayar Greenidge, Shamali Dennery, Stuart A. Weiss, and Gustavo H.S. Vieira

content indexes (nondestructive analysis) were measured in Spring (day 108) and Fall (day 103). Anthocyanin was measured with a portable anthocyanin content meter (ACM-200 plus; Opti-Sciences, Hudson, NH). Chlorophyll was measured using a chlorophyll

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Giacomo Cocetta, Roberto Beghi, Ilaria Mignani, and Anna Spinardi

years. The stored apples underwent the same parameter evaluations performed at harvest. Nondestructive analysis of fruit: I AD and ethylene production I AD was measured daily on apples during shelf life at 20 °C (trial 1), whereas in trial 2, I AD

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G.A. Picchioni, Wayne A. Mackay, and Mario Valenzuela-Vázquez

for nondestructive analysis during 6-d simulated vase life conditions followed by their destructive analysis at the end of the 6-d evaluation (hereafter referred to as the day 6 racemes). A total of 64 racemes were harvested and, with their peduncle