Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., `Heritage') fruit were harvested at six stages of color development to determine the relationship between quality attributes and physiological changes during ripening. Soluble solids concentration and fruit weight increased, whereas titratable acidity decreased during ripening. Fruit darkened and color saturation increased with maturity. Raspberry fruit exhibited a nonclimacteric pattern of respiration, and ethylene (C2H4) was detected only after red pigment developed. Respiration and C2H4 production of whole fruit were similar to those of drupes. Ethylene-forming enzyme activity commenced in drupes and receptacle tissue from fruit at the yellow and mottled stages, respectively. These data indicate that ripening in raspberry fruit is independent of C2H4 production and is nonclimacteric.
Penelope Perkins-Veazie and Gail Nonnecke
Yiping Gong, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis
`Bing' and `Rainier' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) were stored at 20 °C in air or 35 μL·L-1 ethylene. Ethylene production by both `Bing' and `Rainier' fruit stored in air was transiently stimulated following 1-MCP treatments, however, there were no significant effects of 1-MCP on respiration rate. Exogenous ethylene stimulated respiration regardless of prior treatment with 1-MCP. Although 1-MCP treatment reduced the increase in `Bing' respiration induced by ethylene, the reduction was less than reported previously for climacteric fruit. These results suggest that stimulation of sweet cherry fruit respiration by ethylene occurs via a process that may be independent of receptors to which 1-MCP binds. Postharvest changes in fruit color and development of stem browning were not altered by 1-MCP treatment, and exogenous ethylene accelerated the development of stem browning regardless of prior treatment with 1-MCP.
Shi-Lin Tian, Li Li, Yue-Qin Tian, S.N.M. Shah, and Zhen-Hui Gong
control of fruit ripening ( Chai et al., 2011 ; Jia et al., 2011 ; Luo et al., 2014 ), especially in nonclimacteric fruit ( Jia et al., 2011 ; Sun et al., 2012 ). For example, Jia et al. (2011) found that ABA stimulates strawberry ( Fragaria
Juan C. Díaz-Pérez, Dan MacLean, Smiljana Goreta, Sarah Workman, Erick Smith, Harwinder Singh Sidhu, Gunawati Gunawan, Anthony Bateman, Jesús Bautista, William Lovett, Maja Jukić Špika, Gvozden Dumičić, and Mira Radunić
Pomegranate is a nonclimacteric fruit consumed fresh as whole fruit or arils. It can also be used for the production of juice, wine, and syrup. Pomegranate fruit has a hard or leathery pericarp (rind) that may be red, purple, pink, or yellow
Andrea Balogh, Tímea Koncz, Viktória Tisza, Erzsébet Kiss, and László Heszky
To elucidate the role of ethylene in nonclimacteric fruit development and ripening, quantitative (cDNA–amplified fragment length polymorphism) cDNA–AFLP was used to visualize differential gene expression in four stages of ripening of strawberries (Fragaria×ananassa Duch. `Elsanta') treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. The proportion of clones affected by 1-MCP treatment was much higher in green than in white, pink, and red receptacle tissue. Three major cell-wall-related genes were affected by 1-MCP and, thus, are putatively ethylene dependent: a ripening-repressed beta-galactosidase (Faßgal3), up-regulated by 1-MCP; a putative endo-1,3-1,4-beta-D-glucanase (EGase), up-regulated in green and down-regulated in red fruit by 1-MCP; and a pectate lyase B (plB), expressed only in the red stage and significantly down-regulated by 1-MCP. Furthermore, we have identified genes encoding an alcohol dehydrogenase, a protein kinase-related protein, and a putative glutathione S-transferase, all ripening-induced and down-regulated by 1-MCP, suggesting that their regulation is at least partly ethylene dependent.
Satoru Kondo, Wanvisa Ponrod, Sirichai Kanlayanarat, and Nobuhiro Hirai
Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), its 2-trans isomer (trans-ABA), phaseic acid (PA), and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) concentrations were quantified in the peel, aril, and seed of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethylene (C2H4) production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration in the peel and aril were also examined. ACC concentration and CO2 and C2H4 production were high at the beginning of fruit development and gradually decreased toward harvest, which confirms that mangosteen is a nonclimacteric fruit. In the peel and aril, the increase in ABA concentration preceded the decrease in peel firmness and coloring of the peel. This suggests that ABA may induce the maturation of mangosteens. The state of ABA metabolism varied with the part of fruit. In the peel, PA and DPA were not considered to be predominant metabolites of ABA because their concentrations were low compared to ABA throughout fruit development. In contrast, in the aril and seed, it is possible that the PA-DPA pathway may be a main pathway of ABA metabolism because the concentrations of DPA in the aril and of PA in the seed directly coincided with the concentrations of ABA. The differences in the ABA metabolites between aril and seed may be caused by the rate of ABA metabolism. The concentrations of ABA and its metabolite in the seed decreased toward harvest.
Nihal Rajapakse and William C. Newall
Morphological and physiological changes during maturation and ripening of eight Asian pear cultivars grown in the southeastern United States were evaluated. Fruit size increased throughout maturation. Flesh firmness decreased as fruit matured and averaged ≈30 to 35 N at harvest maturity. The average TSS in mature fruit ranged from 10% to 13%, with `Shinko' having the lowest and `Shinsui' having the highest. TSS increased during 4 weeks of storage at 1C, but the increase was greater in immature fruit than in mature fruit. Respiration rate declined as fruit matured. Ethylene production was low in `Hosui', `Kosui', `Nijisseiki', `Shinseiki', `Chojuro', and `Shinko' fruit. Mature `Ichiban' and `Shinsui' fruit produced high amounts of ethylene. `Kosui', `Shinsui', `Chojuro', and `Ichiban' fruit showed a climacteric rise in respiration and ethylene production at 20C, while `Hosui', `Nijisseiki', `Shinseiki', and `Shinko' behaved as nonclimacteric fruit. Ethylene production by 1C-stored `Kosui', `Shinsui', `Chojuro', and `Ichiban' fruit was increased on removal to 20C. Glucose and fructose were low during early maturation but sharply increased ≈80 to 85 days after full bloom (DAFB). Sucrose was low in immature fruit but accumulated rapidly late in maturation ≈100 to 107 DAFB. In mature `Hosui', `Kosui', `Nijisseiki', `Shinsui', `Shinko', and `Ichiban' fruit, fructose was the predominant sugar, while in `Shinseiki' and `Chojuro' fruit, sucrose was the predominant sugar.
R. Porat, B. Weiss, I. Zipori, and A. Dag
is accompanied by peaks in respiration and ethylene production rates, whereas nonclimacteric fruit do not exhibit such increases ( Giovannoni, 2001 ). In climacteric fruit, ethylene plays a key role in governing the physiological and biochemical
Lan-Yen Chang and Jeffrey K. Brecht
a nonclimacteric and ethylene-insensitive crop. In previous research, some researchers have suggested that ethylene could not only stimulate the respiration rate of nonclimacteric fruit, but also accelerate fruit color development, softening, and ion
Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Danielle D. Treadwell, Michael R. Alligood, Donald J. Huber, and Nicholas S. Dufault
honeydew and canary melons are categorized as nonclimacteric fruit ( Burger et al., 2006 ). As a result of ethylene-dependent softening, the difference in flesh firmness is likely associated with the distinct ripening patterns of climacteric and