The influence of temperature and genotype on plant height, internode length, and morphological development of 20 cultivars of Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey were determined by growing plants under one of three day–night temperature regimes (18/18C, 18/24C, and 24/18C). Temperature regime influenced internode length and plant height regardless of plant genotype. Internode length and plant height increased as the day–night temperature differential (DIF) increased from –6 to 6C. Average internode length increased from 5.3 ± 0.2 mm for –6C DIF to 6.3 ± 0.2 mm for +6C DIF. Genotypes differed for average internode length (4.2 to 8.7 mm) and plant height (54 to 95 mm). Node count increased as average daily temperature (ADT) increased. Node counts were 11.2 at 18/18C (ADT = 18), 11.9 at 24/18C (ADT = 20.3), and 12.1 at 18/24C (ADT = 21.8). Genotype × temperature interactions were not significant for the recorded traits. This study demonstrates that DIF is an effective height control strategy, regardless of geranium genotype, and that DIF combined with the selection of genetically short cultivars may eliminate the need for chemical height control in the commercial production of geraniums.
Susan L. Barkley, Sushila Chaudhari, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Katherine M. Jennings, Stephen G. Bullen, and David W. Monks
decrease in slip quality due to increased competition for nutrients, water, light, and space. However, these results indicate that increased seed root density does not have measurable negative impacts on slip quality including node counts, and slip length
J.A. Sullivan, B.A. Hale, and D.P. Ormrod
Factorial experiments in two growing seasons in open-top field chambers with two or three O3 concentrations and two primocane-fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars were used to obtain dose-response relationships describing the effects of seasonal O3 exposure on raspberry plant vegetative and reproductive growth. At the lower concentration (0.12 μl·liter-1), the response to O3 was nonsignificant. However, at 0.24 μl·liter-1, `Heritage' showed a significant decline relative to the control in cane height, node count, cane diameter, and dry weight. These changes were accompanied by a 52% decrease in yield, caused mainly by a reduction in fruit count. In contrast, vegetative and yield characters of the `Redwing' were not affected by O3.
Alison Frane, Royal Heins, Art Cameron, and William Carlson
A 4-hr night interruption (NI) is an effective way to promote flowering in many long-day herbaceous perennials. Some perennials are grown outdoors in the early spring and often are exposed to low night temperatures. Long days delivered by NI lighting ineffectively promote flowering under low-temperature conditions in some long-day species. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of NI long-day lighting treatments delivered at different night temperatures in promoting flowering of several herbaceous perennials. Ten herbaceous perennial species were grown under natural short days augmented with a 4-hr NI. Night temperatures were 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C with day temperature of 25°C for all treatments. Plants were transferred to 9-hr days at a constant 20°C after 7 weeks of treatment. Results on flowering percentage, date of visible bud and flowering, node count, flower bud count, and plant height at flowering will be presented.
David M. Hunter and John T.A. Proctor
Paclobutrazol applied as a soil drench at 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 μg a.i./g soil reduced vegetative growth of `Seyval blanc' grapevines (Vitis spp.). At all rates, there was a reduction in internode length, while at rates higher than 10 μg a.i/g soil, there was also a reduction in node count. Leaf area produced following treatment declined in response to increasing rates, but specific leaf weight increased. Treatment with paclobutrazol delayed senescence and increased the retention of basal leaves that were nearly fully expanded at the time of treatment. Paclobutrazol application had no effect on fruit set or berry size, but the reduction in vegetative growth following treatment decreased the ability of the vine to supply sufficient photoassimilates for fruit maturation. Chemical name used: ß[(4-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-a-(1,1-dimethylethyl)1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Madhoolika Agrawal, Donald T. Krizek, Shashi B. Agrawal, George F. Kramer, Edward H. Lee, Roman M. Mirecki, and Randy A. Rowland
Cucumis sativus L. (cvs. Poinsett and Ashley) plants were grown from seed in a growth chamber at a +10C (28/18) or a -10C (18/28) difference (DIF) between day temperature (DT) and night temperature (NT) on a 12-hour photoperiod for 24 days prior to ozone (O3) fumigation (3 hours at 0.5 umol·mol-1). Negative DIF, compared to +DIF, reduced plant height, node count, fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area in both cultivars. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll concentration, and variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv) were lower and O3 injury and polyamine concentrations were higher at -DIF than at +DIF. Ozone fumigation generally increased leaf concentration of polyamines and reduced Pn, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll fluorescence. `Poinsett' generally had a higher specific leaf mass and higher concentrations of chlorophyll a and polyamines than did `Ashley', but there was no cultivar difference in O3 injury, growth response, Pn, or stomatal conductance.
Pedro B. Oliveira, Cristina M. Oliveira, Luís Lopes-da-Fonseca, and António A. Monteiro
The spring shoots of `Autumn Bliss' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. var. idaeus; primocane-fruiting type) were cut on 2, 16, 31 July and 15 and 30 Aug. with the objective of delaying fruit harvest into the off-season under mild winter climatic conditions. Cutting shoots in August delayed fruit harvest until February and April of the following year, but shoot growth was weak and fruit yield low (4.8 and 2.1 g/cane). July cuttings delayed harvest until October to January with acceptable fruit yield (63.5, 52.8, and 26.5 g/cane for 2, 16, and 31 July, respectively). The differences in cane height and total node and fruiting node count between the three cutting dates of July were small, but there was a constant decrease in leaf area per cane from the first to the third date and a sharp decrease in fruit yield from the second to the third date. Vegetative shoot growth was less affected than yield when summer cutting was delayed until the end of July to induce a later harvest. Fruit quality always reached acceptable standards. This study confirms the practicability of using summer-cutting of primocane-fruiting red raspberries to induce off-season fruit production under protected cultivation in mild winter climates.
I.J. Warrington and R.A. Norton
Plants of chrysanthemum [Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura], radish (Raphanus sativus L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were grown under 8-, 12-, 18- or 24-hour daylengths and at three photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF) within each daylength to evaluate growth and development responses to daily quantum integral (PPF × duration). For the same daily quantum integral, dry matter accumulation and leaf area development were less under 24-hour than under 18-hour daylengths with chrysanthemum and radish. With corn and cucumber, these values were similar under 12-, 18-, and 24-hour daylengths. In all of the species, leaf area and dry matter development were lowest under the 8-hour daylength. Continuous (24-hour) daylength produced some growth abnormalities in radish and chrysanthemum. Specific leaf weight in all species and flower node count in cucumber were linearly related to daily quantum integral up to the highest values examined (73.5 mol·day-1·m-2). All species showed expected photoperiod responses with respect to flowering, but the rate of floral development and number of flower buds formed were highest under the highest PPF (and highest daily quantum integral) treatments. The results indicate that field phenotypes can be obtained in controlled environment (CE) conditions, providing the field daylength and daily quantum integral conditions are reproduced.
(canner, no.1, and jumbo ‘Covington’ roots at 49 bushels/1000 ft 2 ) on slip production. As seed-root density increased, transplant production increased with no change in slip quality, including node counts and slip length. Seed-root size had no effect on
John Erwin, Rene O’Connell, and Ken Altman
groups involves comparison of node number below the first flower on plants grown under different environments ( Thomas and Vince-Prue, 1997 ). Node counting is difficult on cacti as they have areoles (specialized axillary or lateral buds) often arranged