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Zhongchun Jiang, Chenping Xu and Bingru Huang

Arabidopsis BMC Genomics 8 281 298 Boucaud, J. Bigot, J. 1989 Changes in the activities of nitrogen assimilation enzymes of Lolium perenne L. during regrowth after cutting Plant Soil 114 121 125 Bowman, D.C. 1993 The effects of nitrogen deficiency on tissue

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Chenping Xu, Zhongchun Jiang and Bingru Huang

species ( Bowman et al., 1989 ; Bushoven and Hull, 2001 ; Liu et al., 1993 ). Limited studies have investigated metabolic changes of leaves associated with deficient N uptake and availability in turfgrass species. Nitrogen deficiency causes leaf

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Meng Wei, Aijun Zhang, Hongmin Li, Zhonghou Tang and Xiaoguang Chen

Bernard, S.M. Habash, D.Z. 2009 The Importance of cytosolic glutamine synthe-tasein nitrogen assimilation and recycling New Phytol. 182 608 620 Crafts-Brandner, S.J. Hölzer, R. Feller, U. 1998 Influence of nitrogen deficiency on senescence and the amounts

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James C. Locke, James E. Altland and Deanna M. Bobak

. Literature Cited Boussadia, O. Steppe, K. Zgallai, H. Ben El Hadj, S. Braham, M. Lemeur, R. Van Labeke, M.C. 2010 Effects of nitrogeN-deficiency on leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and biomass production in two olive cultivars ‘Meski’ and ‘Koroneiki

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Andrés Olivos, Scott Johnson, Qin Xiaoqiong and Carlos H. Crisosto

Fruit flesh browning (FB) is a major component of cold storage disorders that limits fresh and fresh cut fruit consumption. Using fertigation, nutrient deficiencies were imposed on ‘Grand Pearl’ nectarines (Prunus persica var. nectarina) grown in sand culture for 8 years and postharvest flesh browning was studied over 2 years. Antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, total phenolics, and fruit FB potential were evaluated. Nutrient deficiencies did not always result in leaf or fruit tissue deficiency, indicating complex interactions among nutrients during uptake and use in the plant and its fruit. Low phosphorus and nitrogen fruit concentrations were associated with biochemical browning reactions in fruit flesh at harvest and with fruit FB during storage, signs of a shorter market life and lower consumer quality. Currently recommended leaf and fruit nutrient critical values are based only on production and do not address postharvest quality. Further research is needed to determine new recommended leaf and fruit nutrient values suitable for both production and maintaining fruit quality during storage.

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Ellen T. Paparozzi, Jazbaat K. Chahal, Petre Dobrev, Elizabeth A. Claassen, Walter W. Stroup and Radomira Vankova

.E. Blankenship, E.E. Paparozzi, E.T. 2010 Storage and breakdown of starch aid P. parviflorus in leaf re-greening after nitrogen deficiency Rev. Undergraduate Res. Agr. Life Sci. 15 1 16 Littell, R.C. Milliken, G.A. Stroup, W.W. Wolfinger, R.D. Schabenberger, O

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Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou

) ( Fig. 1A and B ). Nitrogen deficiency greatly decreased shoot FW and DW, either without salt stress (by 85% and 79% for FW and DW, respectively) or with salt stress (by 68% and 61% for FW and DW, respectively). Fig. 1. Effect of salinity and nutrient

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Valéria Santos Cavalcante, Renato de Mello Prado, Ricardo de Lima Vasconcelos, Hilário Júnior de Almeida and Thais Ramos da Silva

. Lemeur, R. Van Labeke, M.C. 2010 Effects of nitrogen deficiency on leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and biomass production in two olive cultivars ‘Meski’ and ‘Koroneiki’ Scientia Hort. 123 336 342 Cavalcante, V.S. Prado, R.M. Almeida, H.J. Cruz, F

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Seong-Hee Lee, Soon-Ho Ha and Gap-Chae Chung

In order to diagnose the nutritional disorders caused by various environmental stress, biochemical test, xylem sap analysis and colorimetric petiole analysis were used to assay symptoms well before the severe development. Among the various enzymatic analysis, alkaline phosphatase activity was highly specific to calcium deficiency while in vivo nitrate reductase activity was not stable parameter in response to nitrogen deficiency. Determination of nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium by colorimetric petiole analysis was sensitive to induced deficiencies. The status of potassium in the plant, however, could be better determined with the xylem sap analysis. Salinity stress induced by low osmotic potential of the nutrient solution increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, showing similar results as calcium deficiency. Magnesium and phosphorous contents by the colorimetric petiole analysis were particularly low when the roots in anoxia.

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Carleton B Wood, Timothy J. Smalley and Mark Rieger

Container-grown Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum `Mariesii' were planted in tilled beds and tilled beds amended with aged pine bark. After transplanting, plants were fertilized at three different rates: no fertilizer, 18.4 g of N m-2, and 36.8 g of N m-2. A 31 day drought was begun 73 days after planting. Fertilization of tilled plots induced ammonium toxicity, which caused a linear reduction in leaf area, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. Fertilization of amended plots had no effect on shoot growth but reduced mot growth by 54%; thus, amendments ameliorated ammonium toxicity. Between 10 and 28 days after beginning the drought, plants in unfertilized-amended plots maintained higher relative leaf water contents (RLWC) and relative leaf expansion rates (RLER) than plants in unfertilized-tilled plots. Amendment induced nitrogen deficiencies contributed to the increased drought tolerance of plants from unfertilized-amended plots. Since fertilized plants developed symptoms of ammonium toxicity, we were unable to determine if increasing fertility would counteract the drought tolerance conferred by pine bark soil amendments.