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Qianqian Sheng and Zunling Zhu

the volume of gas entering the chamber. Fig. 1. A fume exhauster device with timing control and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentration recording capabilities for NO 2 fumigation: 1 = NO 2 gas cylinders; 2 = pressure-reducing valve; 3 = solenoid valve

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Jane M. Petitte and Douglas P. Ormrod

The effects of SO2 and NO2, singly and in combination, on the growth and physiology of nontuberizing Solarium tuberosum L. `Russet Burbank' plants were studied in controlled conditions. Plants were exposed to 0.11 μl SO2 and/or 0.11 μl NO2/liter for 24 hours a day up to 10 days. Statistically significant effects were observed mainly in the SO2+ NO2 treatments compared with the control plants. Leaf area was reduced from day 2 onward, and root fresh and dry weights were reduced from day 4 onward. Significant reductions in leaf and stem dry weights occurred on day 6. Net CO2 exchange rates were reduced for SO2 exposed compared with control plants beginning on day 3, while water loss rates were increased with SO2 + NO2 beginning on day 3. The increases in water loss rate were possibly due to the development of cuticular injury observed as abaxial glazing on the upper and middle canopy leaves. Leaf osmotic potential (π) of plants with SO2 + NO2 became more negative within the first 24 hours of the exposure. This reduction was accompanied by an increase in reducing sugar concentration. Xylem water potential was reduced in the mature and expanding leaflets by day 2 of the SO2 + NO2 exposure. The most sensitive aspect of the action of SO2 + NO2 appeared to be the increase in reducing sugars that affected osmotic potential in the leaves. Considering the retardation of root growth, these data suggest that the pollutant gases may have interfered with partitioning of dry matter from the leaves to the roots.

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David R. Rudell and James P. Mattheis

`Golden Delicious' apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.)] cortex disks suspended in solutions containing a nitric oxide (•NO) donor [S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)], •NO gas, or nitrite (KNO2) were used to identify impacts of •NO on ethylene production and NO2 on •NO and ethylene production. Treatment with GSNO or SNP reduced ethylene biosynthesis compared with control treatments containing equimolar concentrations of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or Na4(CN)6 respectively. Apple disk exposure to •NO gas did not impact ethylene production. Treatment with NO2 resulted in increased •NO production and decreased ethylene biosynthesis. Generation of •NO increased linearly whereas ethylene generation decreased exponentially with increasing NO2 treatment concentration. •NO was enhanced in autoclaved tissue disks treated with NO2 , suggesting that its production is produced at least in part by nonenzymatic means. Although this evidence shows •NO is readily generated in apple fruit disks by NO2 treatment, and ethylene synthesis is reduced by •NO/NO2 generated in solution, the exact nature of •NO generation from NO2 and ethylene synthesis modulation in apple fruit disks remains to be elucidated.

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Heather L. Papinchak, E. Jay Holcomb, Teodora Orendovici Best, and Dennis R. Decoteau

measured. Wolverton concluded that of the taxa selected, common spider plant and golden pothos most effectively reduced various air pollution concentrations (e.g., formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) from closed chambers ( Wolverton, 1984

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Jia Liu, Tingting Xue, and Yongbao Shen

as through the nitrification/denitrification cycle via reduction of nitrate and nitrogen dioxide ( del Río et al., 2004 ). In this study, seeds were treated with sodium nitroprusside (an NO-releasing compound) to investigate the effects of exogenous

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Monica Ann Pilat, Amy McFarland, Amy Snelgrove, Kevin Collins, Tina Marie Waliczek, and Jayne Zajicek

aerosols, fine particulates, and nitrogen dioxide are all believed to sensitize people to asthma ( Elsom, 1996 ). Studies of children with asthma at summer camps found that air pollution, particularly ozone, was significantly and consistently correlated

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S. Christopher Marble, Stephen A. Prior, G. Brett Runion, H. Allen Torbert, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn B. Fain, Jeff L. Sibley, and Patricia R. Knight

soil water, available carbon and nitrate Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 57 66 72 Yamulki, S. Jarvis, S.C. 2002 Short-term effects of tillage and compaction on nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from grassland Biol

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Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm, and Jerry B. Sartain

revisions to the additional ambient air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Washington, DC Vymazal, J. 2007 Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands Sci. Total Environ. 380 48 65 Wanielista, M. Hardin

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Kirsten L. Lloyd, Donald D. Davis, Richard P. Marini, and Dennis R. Decoteau

World Health Organization 2006 Air quality guidelines: Global update 2005: Particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. WHO, Copenhagen, Denmark