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Isidro Morales, Gabino Alberto Martínez-Gutiérrez, Cirenio Escamirosa-Tinoco, Cinthia Nájera, Tatiana Pagan Loeiro da Cunha-Chiamolera, and Miguel Urrestarazu

netting is to modify the radiation that reaches the crop in terms of both quantity and quality. Its placement on the crop decreases the amount of light radiation that strikes the plants during the day, and it also reduces the loss of long-wave radiation

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Giverson Mupambi, Nadia A. Valverdi, Hector Camargo-Alvarez, Michelle Reid, Lee Kalcsits, Tory Schmidt, Felipe Castillo, and Jonathan Toye

Protective netting is increasingly being used by tree fruit growers worldwide to reduce fruit sunburn and protect trees from hail damage ( Mditshwa et al., 2019 ; Mupambi et al., 2018a ). Sunburn is a physiological disorder that causes cosmetic

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Ambani R. Mudau, Puffy Soundy, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

, agronomic practices such as shade netting have been established in the past decade with the aim of filtering selective regions of the spectrum from natural radiation ( Stamps, 2009 ). The use of colored shade nets creates favorable microclimate and provides

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Giverson Mupambi, Stefano Musacchi, Sara Serra, Lee A. Kalcsits, Desmond R. Layne, and Tory Schmidt

level. There were two treatments: an uncovered control plot with no netting and a shade house plot under blue photoselective PN (Blue ChromatiNet; Polysack Plastics Industries, Nir-Yitzhak, Israel). The shade house plot was a hoop house exclusion netting

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Robert H. Stamps

, 2001a , 2001b ). More recently, colored shade netting (shadecloth) designed specifically for manipulating plant development and growth has become available. These nets can be used outdoors as well as in greenhouses. They can provide physical protection

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Jade North, Jan M. Van Niekerk, Tertia Van Wyk, Claire Love, and Martin J. Gilbert

The use of protective netting in fruit tree cultivation is an effective method of preventing yield loss that can result from high temperatures and irradiation, strong wind, and hail ( Manja and Aoun, 2019 ; Mupambi et al., 2018 ; Raveh et al

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J. Strang, J. Hartman, R. Bessin, T. Jones, G. Brown, T. Barnes, T. Yankey, and J. Snyder

Four different netting types were evaluated in the field for excluding Japanese beetles and green June beetles from `Dirksen' thornless blackberry plants. These nets were bird net, crop net, rack mesh, and Agryl P17. Observations were made in an unreplicated trial on `Reliance' grapes using OV3018 and OV7100 nets in addition to those listed. Plants were not sprayed with insecticides or fungicides after net application. Rack mesh appears to be the best net of those evaluated during a dry season for excluding Japanese beetles and green June beetles on thornless blackberries and grapes. Plants covered with rack mesh had minimal fruit and foliage damage due to insects and fruit rot. The use of rack mesh eliminated the need for insecticide sprays for 53 days on thornless blackberries and 41 days on grapes. Light intensity was reduced by the netting, but did not reduce (hornless blackberry yield or soluble solids; however it did unacceptably reduce `Reliance' grape fruit coloration.

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Angela Knerl, Brendon Anthony, Sara Serra, and Stefano Musacchi

= |Average ∑LAI estimated | − |Average ∑LAI destructive |) of ‘WA38’ apple trees in 2016. Fig. 3. The effect of light intensity, shade netting, and height on leaf area index (LAI) through pairs of hemispherical images ( A – B , C – D , and E – F ) before

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Paul D. Curtis, Ian A. Merwin, Marvin P. Pritts, and David V. Peterson

We conducted 3 years of field tests comparing two chemicals [methyl anthranilate (MA, a natural compound used as a flavor additive) and Keyplex-350 (a proprietary micronutrient formulation)] that were reported to repel birds to exclusionary plastic netting and nontreated plots. Cumulative fruit damage from birds was monitored on sweet and tart cherry (Prunus avium L. and P. cerasus L.), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), and wine grapes (Vitis vinifera × labrusca). Initial MA formulations caused injury to fruit and foliage. Two modified MA formulations with microencapsulation and photooxidation inhibitors provided significant reductions in bird damage and fruit splitting on sweet cherries in one of four experiments. A taste panel could not detect MA residues on sweet cherries at harvest. Bird damage was slightly reduced in MA-treated grapes, but damage to blueberries was similar in MA and control treatments. Keyplex did not deter birds from feeding on fruit and caused blemishes on and an unpleasant flavor in treated fruit. Many bird species were observed feeding on these fruit crops during successive years at the three experimental sites. Although these two chemicals have the potential to deter bird depredation, our work suggests that neither is consistently effective against all the frugivorous species in the northeastern United States. Chemical name used: 2-Aminobenzoic acid methyl ester [methyl anthranilate (MA)].

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Kuo-Tan Li and Jim Syvertsen

Young citrus trees and seedlings in Florida's commercial nurseries are often grown under shade cloth netting to avoid high light and temperature. To investigate the potential benefit of altering radiation by colored shade nets, `Cleopatra' mandarin (Cleo, C. reticulata Blanco) seedlings and potted `Valencia' trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] on Cleo or Carrizo [Carr, C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliate (L.) Raf.] rootstocks were grown in full sun or under 50% shade from blue, black, silver, grey, and red colored shade nets. Changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperatures under the shade were monitored. Leaf function and leaf chlorophyll contents were measured, and plants were harvested by the end of the experiment for shoot and root growth measurements. Plants under the shade received an average of 45% PAR and had lower mid-day leaf temperature than plants in full sun. Plants under blue nets had greatest leaf chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll content, whereas those under red nets had the lowest. However, shading improved photosystem II efficiency from measurements of leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) regardless of the color of shade nets. Shading increased shoot growth, shoot to root ratio, and total plant dry weight of Cleo seedlings, especially those under silver nets.