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Alicia Rihn and Hayk Khachatryan

containing neonicotinoids or neonics indicating that consumer awareness of neonic insecticides is low ( Table 1 ). Overall, participants in the neonics aware group were younger, consisted of a lower percentage of females, were more educated, and had larger

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Heidi M. Wollaeger, Kristin L. Getter and Bridget K. Behe

Neonicotinoid insecticides are a class of insecticides that selectively act against piercing and sucking insect pests, such as aphids, which are a common pest of crops ( Tomizawa and Casida, 2005 ). The class of insecticides includes imidacloprid

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Diana Carolina Núñez-López, Augusto Ramírez-Godoy and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

) between 24 Aug. and 21 Dec. 2012. Whitefly control The treatments were 1) control (plants without application of any insecticide product), 2) bean plants treated with synthetic chemical insecticides mainly from the groups of neonicotinoids, chitin and

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Kristin L. Getter, Bridget K. Behe and Heidi Marie Wollaeger

, and exposure to mites, parasites, and pathogens including varroa mite ( Varroa destructor ) and nosema disease ( Nosema ceranae ) ( Doublet et al., 2015 ; Goulson et al., 2015 ). Recently, neonicotinoid insecticides, a class of insecticides that act

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Benjamin Campbell, Hayk Khachatryan and Alicia Rihn

). Wollaeger et al. (2015) used a nationwide survey to assess U.S. consumer purchase likelihood for floriculture crops grown using different pest management strategies (i.e., traditional, neonicotinoid-free, bee-friendly, biological control). According to

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Carter M. Westerhold, Samuel Wortman, Kim Todd and Douglas Golick

butterflies, specifically?” (14%), “will this chemical hurt the bees/butterflies?” (7%), “will this attract bees? I don’t want to get stung by bees.” (6%), “what landscape practices will help pollinators?” (5%), “does this plant have neonicotinoids?” (5%), and

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J.L. Bi and N.C. Toscano

. comm., 2005). Control of this pest in California has been heavily dependent on chemical insecticides, including neonicotinoids, insect growth regulators, and some conventional insecticides. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide, which acts on

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Brian K. Hogendorp and Raymond A. Cloyd

are less susceptible to the insecticide than earlier instars ( Copeland et al., 1985 ). Furthermore, Quarles (2005) indicated that neem extracts are not effective against mealybugs. Acetamiprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide ( Matsuda et al., 2001

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Diane M. Narem, Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Chengyan Yue and Nicole Roth

traditional pest management practices.” Rihn and Khachatryan (2016) found that on average consumers preferred “pollinator-friendly” plant labels, but those who were aware of neonicotinoid pesticides, a contentious pollinator issue, showed a stronger

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Raymond A. Cloyd

costs $167.00, whereas a 5 × 20-g pack of Marathon 60WP costs $325.00 ( Hummert International™, 2008 ). This is a difference of $158.00. Most of the mixtures cited in the survey involved pesticides classified as pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, or insect