Superbells Trailing Blue calibrachoa; Sun Chimes Coral diascia; Aromatica White and Vanilla Sachet nemesia; and Bridal Showers and Candy Floss Blue sutera or bacopa. All were planted in soilless media (Pro Mix BX; Premier Brands, Quakertown, PA) in 4.5-inch
Shannon E. Beach, Terri W. Starman, Kristen L. Eixmann, H. Brent Pemberton and Kevin M. Heinz
James E. Faust and Larry W. Grimes
Stock plants of four vegetatively propagated annual species (Argyranthemum frutescens `Comet Pink', Nemesia fruticans `Plum Sachet' Venten., Osteospermum fruticosum `Zulu' L., and Verbena ×hybrida `Lanai Bright Pink' L.) were grown with one (P), two (PP), or three (PPP) pinches during the scaffold development phase. The number of pinches applied to all four species affected the yield and distribution of cuttings produced over time. P began to produce cuttings first; however, the rate (number of cuttings per week) of cutting production was relatively low resulting in the fewest total cuttings produced by the end of the experiment. Cutting harvest from PPP started 3 to 6 weeks after cuttings were initially harvested from P. However, the rate of increase in cutting production was greater in PPP than P for all species, except Osteospermum, so the total cutting yield of PPP equaled P after 3 to 5 weeks of cutting production. The final cutting yield for PPP was 38%, 38%, 20%, and 8% higher than P for Argyranthemum, Nemesia, Osteospermum, and Verbena, respectively. PP produced 24%, 17%, and 21% more total cuttings than P for Argyranthemum, Nemesia, and Osteospermum, respectively, while Verbena displayed no significant difference. At the termination of the experiment, the weekly rate of cutting production increased 66.3%, 84.0%, and 30.5% as pinch number increased from P to PPP for Argyranthemum, Nemesia, and Verbena, respectively. This study demonstrates that the number of pinches performed on stock plants during scaffold development can have a significant impact on the timing, the weekly production rate, and cumulative yield of cuttings harvested.
Veronica A. Hutchinson, Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez
and development of four annual bedding plant species. Materials and Methods Plant material and culture. Cuttings of Angelonia angustifolia ‘AngelMist White Cloud’, Nemesia fruticans ‘Aromatica Royal’, Osteospermum ecklonis ‘Voltage Yellow’, and
Terri W. Starman, Shannon E. Beach and Kristen L. Eixmann
Trailing Purple’, and ‘Superbells Trailing Blue’ calibrachoa; ‘Sun Chimes Coral’ diascia; ‘Aromatica White’ and ‘Vanilla Sachet’ nemesia; and ‘Bridal Showers’ and ‘Candy Floss Blue’ sutera or bacopa ( Sutera hybrida ). All were planted in soilless media
Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez
during propagation of herbaceous stem-tip cuttings compared with traditional WSF. Materials and Methods Expt. 1. On 18 Jan. 2012, ≈100 cuttings of Angelonia angustifolia ‘AngelFace White’ and ‘Sundancer Pink’, Nemesia fruticans ‘Bluebird’ and
Christopher J. Currey, Veronica A. Hutchinson and Roberto G. Lopez
’, Nemesia fruticans ‘Aromatica Royal’, Osteospermum ecklonis ‘Voltage Yellow’, Scaevola hybrid ‘Blue Print’, Sutera cordata ‘Abunda Giant White’, and Verbena × hybrida ‘Aztec Violet’ were planted in 15-cm (1.7-L volume) round containers filled with
Tasneem M. Vaid, Erik S. Runkle and Jonathan M. Frantz
Deep Purple’), geranium ( Pelargonium × hortorum ‘Pinto Red’ and ‘Ringo 2000 Deep Red’), globe amaranth ( Gomphrena globosa ‘Gnome Purple’), heliotrope ( Heliotropium arborescens ‘Blue Wonder’), nemesia ( Nemesia foetans ‘Poetry White’), New Guinea
Terri W. Starman, Melissa C. Robinson and Kristen L. Eixmann
Plant response to ethephon treatment was tested on 27 cultivars of vegetative annuals that have spreading and trailing growth habits. A control treatment was compared to 500 and 1000 mg·L-1 (ppm) foliar spray treatments of ethephon. Plant height and/or width index were significantly reduced for 81% of the cultivars tested. Responsive cultivars were alternanthera (Alternanthera dentata), brachyscome (Brachyscome iberidifolia) `Toucan Tango'; calibrachoa (Calibrachoa hybrids) `Colorburst Red', `Million Bells Cherry Pink', and `Trailing Pink'; diascia (Diascia × hybrida) `Sunchimes Rose' and `Red Ace'; double impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) `Tioga Red' and `Tioga White'; sweetpotato vine (Ipomoea batatas) `Sweet Caroline Bronze'; lantana (Lantana camara) `Patriot Cherry' and `Samantha'; nemesia (Nemesia × hybrida) `Aromatica Dark Lavender', `Blue Bird', and `Blueberry Sachet'; nolana (Nolana paradoxa) `Blue Eyes'; ivy geranium (Pelargonium hybrida) `King of Balcon'; petunia (Petunia × hybrida) `Cascadia Pink', `Mini Bright Pink', and `Supertunia Mini Purple'; bacopa (Sutera cordata) `Bridal Showers'; and vinca vine (Vinca minor) `Illumination'. Ethephon was not effective on monopsis (Monopsis unidentata) `Royal Flush', persicaria (Persicaria microcephala) `Red Dragon', or calibrachoa `Liricashower Rose'. Different cultivars of petunia showed varied responses to ethephon treatments as did trailing snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) `Chandelier Yellow' and `Luminaire Yellow'. Flower number was reduced in 55% of the cultivars due to a delay in flowering. The experiment finds efficacy of ethephon for most cultivars treated at rates greater than or equal to that used commercially, however more research is needed to determine optimum concentrations for the specific cultivars. Chemical name used: ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid].
Shannon E. Beach* and Terri W. Starman
Vegetative annuals are increasing in popularity among greenhouse growers and consumers but little is known about their postharvest shelf life. Twenty-two cultivars from ten species of vegetative annuals were grown to marketability with optimum greenhouse culture. Plants were then subjected to one of three shipping durations (0, 1, or 2 days) in simulated shipping i.e., a growth chamber at 26.7 ± 0.3 °C, 0 μmol·m-2·s-1, and 50% relative humidity. The plants were then moved to simulated postharvest environment i.e., growth room at 21.1 ± 1.3 °C and 6 μmol·m-2·s-1 to evaluate shelf life. Flower number and plant quality rating were measured weekly in addition to observations of plant appearances. Some of the postharvest disorders noted on several species and cultivars were stem die back, leaf chlorosis, stem elongation, bud abortion, flower drop, and flower fading. The majority of the cultivars maintained their quality one-week postharvest although flower drop was common. After the first week of shelf life, decline in vegetative and reproductive tissues were noted in most plants. Cultivars from nine species: Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch. Bip, Bracteantha bracteata (Vent.) Anderb. & Haegi, Calibrachoa hybrid Lave Lex, Diascia ×hybrida, Lantana camara L., Nemesia ×hybrida, Petunia ×hybrida, Sutera hybrida, and Sutera cordata showed decreased flower number and/or quality rating due to shipping duration, with increased shipping duration causing accelerated postharvest disorders. The only species unaffected by shipping duration was Angelonia angustifolia Benth.
William B. Miller, Neil S. Mattson, Xiaorong Xie, Danghui Xu, Christopher J. Currey, Kasey L. Clemens, Roberto G. Lopez, Michael Olrich and Erik S. Runkle
Cerv. hybrid ‘Cabaret Pink Hot’, Diascia barberae Hook. F. ‘Wink Coral’, Nemesia fruticans (Thunb.) Benth. ‘Aromatica Royal’, Sutera cordata Roth. ‘Abunda Giant White’, and Verbena Ruiz × hybrida ‘Aztec Violet’ were transplanted into 10-cm