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Sally M. Schneider, Husein A. Ajwa, Thomas J. Trout, and Suduan Gao

-textured soils, nematode control efficacy varied relative to the control achieved with the industry standard shank-injected protocols ( Westerdahl et al., 1993 , 2003 ). Delivery of nematicidal materials to soil depths greater than 60 cm is critical, even in

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Francesco Di Gioia, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Jason Hong, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Joseph Albano, Xin Zhao, Zack Black, Zhifeng Gao, Chris Wilson, John Thomas, Kelly Moore, Marilyn Swisher, Haichao Guo, and Erin N. Rosskopf

study was conducted in an open-field, fresh-market tomato production system to evaluate ASD in comparison with the reference CSF treatments for weeds and nematodes control as well as for influence on fruit yield and quality. Materials and Methods

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W. A. Skroch, T. J. Monaco, T. R. Konsler, and P. B. Shoemaker


Azide as NaN3 or KN3 impregnated on clay granules gave excellent control of yellow nutsedge (Cypetus esculentus L.) compared to methyl isothiocyanate combined with chlorinated C3 hydrocarbons (Vorlex) or a non-hand weeded control. Nematode control was obtained with all treatments. Significant yield responses from the use of azide were obtained with all crops.

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Charles E. Barrett, Xin Zhao, and Robert McSorley

Organic heirloom tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are difficult to grow in Florida as a result of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKN) and hot, humid growing conditions. Although grafting with resistant rootstocks has been shown effective for RKN management in tomato production, little research has been conducted on grafted heirloom tomatoes under Florida conditions. In this 2-year study, two susceptible heirloom tomato scions, ‘Brandywine’ and ‘Flamme’, were grafted onto two hybrid rootstocks, i.e., interspecific tomato hybrid rootstock ‘Multifort’ (S. lycopersicum × S. habrochaites) and tomato hybrid rootstock ‘Survivor’ (S. lycopersicum). Non-grafted and self-grafted scions were used as controls. Three field trials were conducted including the 2010 and 2011 organic field trials as well as a transitional organic field trial in 2011. There was a lack of RKN pressure in the organic field in 2010. In 2011, the RKN population was higher in the transitional field than the organic field, whereas grafting with hybrid rootstocks significantly reduced root galling (P ≤ 0.0001) in both fields. In the organic field, the hybrid rootstocks performed similarly and significantly reduced root galling compared with the non-grafted and self-grafted scions by ≈80.8%. In the transitional field, compared with non-grafted scions, the root galling reduction by ‘Survivor’ (97.1%) was significantly greater than that by ‘Multifort’ (57.6%). In general, tomato plants grafted onto ‘Multifort’ tended to be more vigorous than all other treatments. There was no clear relationship between root galling and tomato yields. Grafting did not significantly affect the total marketable yield for the scion ‘Flamme’ in both years. Total marketable yield was similar among treatments in 2010 but varied in 2011 for the scion ‘Brandywine’. In 2011, the non-grafted ‘Brandywine’ and ‘Brandywine’ grafted to ‘Survivor’ produced significantly higher (P < 0.05) yields than other treatments in the organic field. However, in the transitional field, ‘Brandywine’ grafted to ‘Multifort’ resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) yields than the non- and self-grafted ‘Brandywine’ treatments. Grafting with appropriate rootstocks may play an effective role in RKN management during the transition to organic production when high populations of nematodes are present.

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Gladis M. Zinati

Conventional agricultural systems increase per-area food production, but deplete natural resources and degrade both crop and environmental quality. Many of these concerns are addressed by sustainable agricultural systems, integrated pest management, biocontrol, and other alternative systems. Environmental and social concerns have escalated the need for alternative agricultural systems in the last decade. One alternative, the organic farming system, substitutes cultural and biological inputs for synthetically made fertilizers and chemicals for crop nutrition and pest management. Practices used for crop and pest management are similar during transition from conventional to organic farming systems, but produce is not certified to be organic during the transition period. During the transition from conventional to organic farming, growers may face pest control difficulties and lower yields when conventional practices are abandoned. The objectives of this paper are to 1) give an overview of the reasons for converting to organic farming and the challenges that growers face during the transition period, 2) outline some potential strategies for crop, soil, and pest management, and 3) list guidelines and recommendations for pest management during the transition to organic farming. Implementation of crop and pest management practices depends on geographical location, climate, available onsite resources, and history of the land. During transition, growers rely on cultural mechanisms and on organic and mineral sources to improve soil fertility, to build a population of natural enemies to suppress pest populations. Pest management practices during the transition period that reduce pest populations to economically manageable levels include crop rotation, cultivation, cover crops, mulches, crop diversification, resistant varieties, and insect traps. These practices also enrich the soil biota and increase crop yields before produce is certified organically grown.

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Sally M. Schneider and Bradley D. Hanson

California ( CDFA, 2008a ). However, the maximum use rate of 1,3-D in California (332 lb/acre) does not provide sufficient nematode control in nurseries with fine-textured soils ( McKenry, 2005 ). The use of 1,3-D in California is further restricted by

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James P. Gilreath, Bielinski M. Santos, and Timothy N. Motis

with MBr for soil-borne disease control. Bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) research revealed effective nematode control under mulched beds with preplant applications of 1,3-D + Pic ( Eger, 2000 ; Mirusso et al., 2002 ). Dazomet, metam sodium (MNa) and

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S.M. Schneider, B.D. Hanson, J.S. Gerik, A. Shrestha, T.J. Trout, and S. Gao

-field nursery trials with drip-applied materials containing 1,3-D demonstrated good nematode control ( Schneider et al., 2004 ). The objective of the trials reported here was to evaluate registered and experimental alternatives to MB in open-field nurseries. The

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José M. López-Aranda, Luis Miranda, Juan J. Medina, Carmen Soria, Berta de los Santos, Fernando Romero, Rosa M. Pérez-Jiménez, Miguel Talavera, Steve A. Fennimore, and Bielinski M. Santos

highest root-knot nematode control among all treatments (<2 juveniles per gram of root), whereas dazomet and Ca-cyanamide were not different from the nontreated control in the 2003–04 season. Strawberry plant diameter, early and total marketable yield, and

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D. M. Sato, D. Schmitt, and J. DeFrank

Fourteen different nematicides were tested for efficacy against the rootknot nematode in edible ginger during the 1990 and 1991 seasons. The test site was located in Papaikou, Hawaii and on land previously cropped to ginger. Soil treated with methyl bromide formulations resulted in comparitively good yield and rootknot nematode control. Metam sodium at 100 gallons per acre appeared to be a good alternative nematicide for edible ginger.