The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita [(Kofoid & White) Chitwood], causes serious economic losses to melon (Cucumis melo L.) production in the United States. The present study was conducted to determine if separable differences in nematode resistance of Cucumis melo could be found at some inoculum level. Five C. melo lines were compared with Cucumis metuliferus Naud. (C701A), a highly resistant species, for root necrosis, galling, egg mass production, and reproduction when inoculated at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, or 5000 nematode eggs per plant. Using these criteria, melon line C880 inoculated with 1000 eggs per plant was highly susceptible, while PI140471, PI 183311, and the cultivars Chilton, Georgia 47, Gulf Coast, Planters Jumbo, and Southland were less susceptible. In greenhouse tests with an inoculum level of 1000 eggs per plant, low levels of resistance were evident. A thorough screening of the available germplasm against M. incognita may identify higher levels of root-knot nematode resistance for incorporation into improved melon cultivars.
Perry E. Nugent and P.D. Dukes
Eduard Alcañiz, Jorge Pinochet, Carolina Fernández, Daniel Esmenjaud, and Antonio Felipe
Fourteen Prunus rootstocks were evaluated against mixtures of several isolates of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus vulnus Allen and Jensen in three greenhouse experiments. Most of the tested rootstocks are new releases or materials in advanced stages of selection that also have incorporated root-knot nematode resistance. The plums Torinel (Prunusdomestica L.) and Redglow (P. salicina Lindl. P. munsoniana Wight and Hedrick cv. Jewel) showed a moderately resistant response; their final nematode population levels were lower or slightly higher than inoculation levels. Low nematode reproduction also was found in the peach–almond hybrid G N No 22 [P. persica (L.) Batsch P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] and the plum Bruce (P. salicina P. angustifolia Marsh.), and although these rootstocks did not perform as well as Torinel and Redglow, they also appear to be poor hosts for P. vulnus.
Mwamburi Mcharo*, Don Labonte, Chris Clark, and Mary Hoy
Using two sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) F1 populations from diverse environments we investigated the AFLP marker profiles of the genotypes for association studies between the molecular markers and southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance expression. Population one consisted of 51 half-sib genotypes developed at the Louisiana State Univ. AgCenter. The second population consisted of 51 full-sibs developed by the East African and International Potato Center sweetpotato breeding programs. Results for nematode resistance expression indicate a binomial distribution among the genotypes. Using analysis of molecular variance, logistic regression and discriminant analysis, AFLP markers that are most influential with respect to the phenotypic trait expression were selected for both populations. A comparative analysis of the power of models from the two statistical models for southern root-knot nematode resistance class prediction was also done. The diversity and possible universal similarity of influential markers between the two populations and the expected impact in sweetpotato breeding programs will be discussed.
Luisa Santamaria and Sherry L. Kitto
Solanum quitoense is a perennial herbaceous plant native to the tropical regions of Colombia and Ecuador. It has attracted the attention of the international market because of the special taste of its fruits and its being a non traditional crop. The main problem in its culture is its susceptibility to root-knot nematodes, Meloido-gyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood. Two cultivars of S. quitoense were examined, `Baeza' and `Dulce'. The main objective of this research was to develop protocols for proliferation, rooting and establishment, and regeneration and screening for root-knot nematode resistance. S. quitoense was easy to proliferate, root and reestablish without using growth regulators. Regenerants were initiated from petioles and internodal stem sections cultured on MS medium supplemented with BA 1 to 10 mg·L–1. From 420 explants cultured for each cultivar, there were 226 regenerants for `Baeza' and 279 for `Dulce'. Screening of regenerants for root-knot nematode resistance was carried out in the greenhouse with the regenerants of `Dulce'. Twenty-one regenerants, inoculated with 1000 eggs per plant (determined based on a previous experiment), had five or fewer galls after 5 weeks. Follow-up greenhouse and in vitro screening experiments are presently ongoing.
Richard L. Fery* and Judy A. Thies
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests of pepper (Capsicum spp.) in the United States, and parasitism of susceptible plants can result in severe yield losses. Although cultivars belonging to the species C. annuum account for most of the peppers grown in the United States. Habanero-type cultivars belonging to the species C. chinense are becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately, all commercial Habanero-type cultivars are susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In 1997, the USDA released three C. chinense germplasm lines that exhibit high levels of resistance to root-knot nematodes. The resistance in these lines is conditioned by a single dominant gene, and this gene conditions resistance to the southern root-knot nematode (M. incognita), the peanut root-knot nematode (M. arenaria race 1), and the tropical root-knot nematode (M. javanica). A recurrent backcross breeding procedure has been used to transfer the C. chinense root-knot nematode resistance gene in Habanero-type germplasm. Several root-knot nematode resistant, Habanero-type candidate cultivars have been developed. Each of these Habanero-type candidate cultivars has a compact plant habit and produces a high yield of orange-colored, lantern-shaped fruit.
Peng Ling, Fred G. Gmitter Jr., Larry W. Duncan, and S. Y. Xiao
A family of 63 citrus intergenemic backcross hybrids was used for this study. The parents and hybrids were multiplied by rooted cuttings, with 6 uniform replicates selected per hybrid, and each plant was inoculated with citrus nematodes (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 5 times over 2 mo. The number of nematode female larvae per gram of fine fresh root was determind 2 mo after the last inoculation. The phenotypic variation of the hybrids was continuous and wide-ranged, from 8.0 females· g-1 of root tissue (resistant parent Swingle citrumelo=15.6) to 620.0 females· g-1 of root tissue (susceptible parent LB 6-2=540.5). Bulked segregant analysis (BSA), using RAPD fragments, was conducted with 2 DNA bulks of individuals from the extremes of the phenotypic distribution. Three hundred twenty primers were screened and 5 were found to generate repeatedly single RAPD fragments specific to the resistant bulk. The segregation of resistance-associated fragments among the individuals was examined, and the linkage between these markers and potential nematode resistance loci was estimated.
S. Alan Walters and Todd C. Wehner
Root knot caused by Meloidogyne spp. is an important disease of cucumber. Resistance to M. javanica in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is conferred by the newly discovered mj gene. The objective of this research was to determine whether mj was linked to other genes controlling morphological or disease resistance traits in cucumber. Four inbred lines homozygous for mj (LJ 90430, `Manteo', NCG-198, and NCG-199) were crossed with inbreds (`Coolgreen', M 21, NCG-101, WI 2757, and `Wisconsin SMR 18') to form six families: NCG-101 × LJ 90430, WI 2757 × LJ 90430, NCG-199 × `Wis. SMR 18', NCG-198 × M 21, `Manteo' × M 21, and NCG-198 × `Coolgreen'. F2 progeny were evaluated in all families, and BC1 progeny were evaluated only in the NCG-199 × `Wis. SMR 18' family. Meloidogyne javanica resistance and the 17 other traits controlled by simple genes were evaluated in greenhouse or field tests. None of the 17 genes were linked with mj. Therefore, cucumber breeders interested in nematode resistance should be able to incorporate the trait into lines without having to break linkages with the 17 genes used in this study.
Jim C. Cervantes-Flores, G. Craig Yencho, Kenneth V. Pecota, Bryon Sosinski, and Robert O.M. Mwanga
, R.C.M. Lewis, J. Jeffries, S.P. Langridge, P. 1998 RFLP mapping of a new cereal cyst nematode resistance locus in barley Plant Breed. 117 185 187 Bryan, G. McLean, K. Bradshaw, J
Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Donald W. Dickson, Maria L. Mendes, and Judy Thies
for control of fusarium wilt Sci. Hort. 103 9 17 Nickle, W.R. 1991 Manual of agricultural nematology. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY Nugent, P.E. Dukes, P.D. 1997 Root-knot nematode resistance in Cucumis species HortScience 32 880 881 Oka, Y
K. Ukoskit, P.G. Thompson, C.E. Watson Jr., and G.W. Lawrence
The inheritance of resistance to root-knot nematode race 3 [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] in sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was studied in 71 progenies of the F1 single-cross population produced from the cross of resistant parent `Regal' and susceptible parent `Vardaman'. The distribution frequency of the progenies based on log total nematode number (egg + juvenile counts) was a bimodal distribution with a ratio of ≈4 resistant : 1 susceptible. Based on this phenotypic ratio, the proposed genetic model was duplex polysomic inheritance (RRrrrr = resistant parent and rrrrrr = susceptible parent). Bulk segregant analysis in conjunction with the RAPD technique was used to identify a RAPD marker linked to a root-knot-nematode-resistance gene. Of 760 random decamer primers screened, 9 showed polymorphic bands between the two bulk DNA samples. Primer OPI51500 produced a band in the resistant bulk but not in the susceptible bulk, suggesting a linkage in coupling phase. An estimated recombination fraction of 0.2421 ± 0.057 between the marker and the root-knot-nematode-resistance gene indicated linkage.