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Barbara R. Bingaman and Nick E. Christians

Corn (Zea mays L.) gluten meal (CGM) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for efficacy on 22 selected monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed species. Corn gluten meal was applied at 0, 324, 649, and 973 g·m–2 and as a soil-surface preemergence (PRE) and preplant-incorporated (PPI) weed control product. CGM reduced plant survival, shoot length, and root development of all tested species. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), curly dock (Rumex crispus L.), purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) were the most susceptible species. Plant survival and root development for these species were reduced by ≥75%, and shoot length was decreased by >50% when treated PRE and PPI with 324 g CGM/m2. Catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber), giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.), and smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl] exhibited survival and shoot length reductions >50% and an 80% reduction in root development when treated with PPI CGM at 324 g·m–2. Barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.] and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) were the least susceptible species showing survival reductions ≤31% when treated with 324 g CGM/m2.

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Dianna L. Liu and Nick E. Christians

Corn gluten hydrolysate (CGH) was evaluated in the greenhouse for its herbicidal activity on 19 selected monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Treatments included CGH at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 g·dm-2. Plant susceptibility was based on plant survival, shoot length, and root length. The germination and growth of all species were inhibited by the application of CGH at all rates. Black medic (Medicago lupulina L.), buckhorn plaintain (Plantago lanceolata L.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) were the most susceptible species, exhibiting more than 70% reduction in root length, 60% reduction in plant survival, and 52% reduction in shoot length with CGH at 1 g·dm-2. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), curly dock (Rumex crispus L.), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber), giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.), large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.], and yellow foxtail [Setaria lutescens (Weigel) Hubb.] exhibited more than 50% reduction in root length and plant survival at 1 g·dm-2. Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.), barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crusgali (L.) Beauv.], green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), quackgrass [Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.], and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) survivial was reduced by 60% at 2 g·dm-2. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was the least susceptible species.

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Lyn A. Gettys, Kyle L. Thayer, and Joseph W. Sigmon

needed to identify ways for managers to maintain water resources effectively without the use of synthetic herbicides. “Naturalherbicides are used extensively by home gardeners, organic farmers, and others who wish to reduce their use of synthetic

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Rick A. Boydston, Treva Anderson, and Steven F. Vaughn

natural herbicide in turf and other crops ( Liu and Christians, 1997 ; Liu et al., 1994 ; McDade and Christians, 2001 ; Nonnecke and Christians, 1993 ). Dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) are a byproduct of ethanol produced from corn that

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Charles L. Webber III, James W. Shrefler, and Merritt J. Taylor

.S. Patent No. 5,030,268 United States Patent and Trademark Office Washington, DC Christians, N.E. 1993 The use of corn gluten meal as a natural preemergence weed control in turf Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 7 284 290 Christians, N.E. 1995 A natural herbicide

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Jacob C. Domenghini

. Morris, C. Peeters, A. Sanderson, M. 2010 An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals Grass Forage Sci. 66 2 28 Bingaman, B.R. Howieson, M.J. Christians, N.E. 2000 Alldown™ natural herbicide study. Turfgrass Res. Rpt., Iowa State

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Na Liu, Baoli Zhou, Xin Zhao, Bo Lu, Yixiu Li, and Jing Hao

Macias, F.A. 1995 Allelopathy in search for natural herbicide model ACS Symp. Ser. 582 310 329 Morgan, D.P. Liebman, J.A. Epstein, L. Jimenez, M.J. 1991 Solarizing soil planted with cherry

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Muhammad Mansoor Javaid, Manish Bhan, Jodie V. Johnson, Bala Rathinasabapathi, and Carlene A. Chase

natural herbicides that could be employed for weed management in organic and sustainable production systems. Literature Cited Abdul-Baki, A.A. Bryan, H.H. Zinati, G. Klassen, W. Codallo, M. Heckert, N. 2001 Biomass yield and flower production in sunn hemp

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William Sciarappa, Sridhar Polavarapu, James Barry, Peter Oudemans, Mark Ehlenfeldt, Gary Pavlis, Dean Polk, and Robert Holdcraft

weeds by exuding allopathic herbicidal substances through their roots that act as natural herbicides. Fig. 2. Percent groundcover. In established blueberry blocks at two organic farms, regular mowings alone gradually changed a mixed stand

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Jose G. Franco, Stephen R. King, Joseph G. Masabni, and Astrid Volder

Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 68 51 71 Dayan, F.E. Cantrell, C.L. Duke, S.O. 2009 Natural products in crop protection Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17 4022 4034 Dayan, F.E. Howell, J.L. Marais, J.P. Ferreira, D. Koivunen, M. 2011 Manuka oil: A natural herbicide with