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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos and Glenn S. Sakamoto

The ecological effects of roads impact nearly 15% of the land area of the United States, an area equivalent in size to all conservation areas of the country combined ( Wilkinson et al., 2008 ). Planting roadsides with native species can displace

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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos and Ruijun Qin

are fire adapted, such as the native Hawaiian grass species tanglehead ( Heteropogon contortus ), simulated combustion products liquid smoke (a commercial food-grade flavoring) and cyanide can be effective germination promoters ( Baldos, 2013

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S. Christopher Marble

An invasive species is defined as “an alien (non-native) species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health” ( USDA, 2018a ). Invasive plants have been subject to significant research from

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A.L. Shober, K.A. Moore, C. Wiese, S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman and M. Paz

Urban population growth and periodic droughts throughout much of the United States have led to increased restrictions on landscape water use. These water restrictions have increased interest in planting native shrub species because natives are often

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Philip J. Kauth and Hector E. Pérez

.52 billion ( Hodges, 2011 ). With support from the federal government, state agencies, and private organizations, the use of native plants has been a growing segment in the horticulture industry ( Executive Order 13112, 1999 ; National Wildlife Federation

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Larry A. Rupp, Richard M. Anderson, James Klett, Stephen L. Love, Jerry Goodspeed and JayDee Gunnell

-tolerant landscape plants includes both exotic plants (plants not present before western colonization and adapted to the landscaped environment) and/or native plants [for the purposes of this article, species originating anywhere within the Intermountain West region

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Julia A. Cartabiano and Jessica D. Lubell

There is strong consumer interest in native plants for landscaping [ Garden Writers Association Survey (2010), 2011 ]. Landscape architects and master gardeners would like to use more native plants but have found that a broad palette of native

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Emily C. Baisden, Douglas W. Tallamy, Desiree L. Narango and Eileen Boyle

The dominant landscaping practice of recent centuries has been to create landscapes designed with ornamental plants that have been introduced from other countries. This practice has been so pervasive that nonnative plant species now outnumber native

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Melissa Broussard, Sujaya Rao, William P. Stephen and Linda White

The domesticated cranberry is a low, perennial woody vine native to northeastern North America ( Eck, 1986 ). Fruit set and fruit size are maximized when eight or more pollen grains are transferred to the stigma of the flower; if fewer than four

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Jeffrey G. Norcini and James H. Aldrich

Growing demand for premium value, prevariety germplasm of site or regionally specific ecotype seeds of native forbs (hereafter referred to as wildflowers) for use in ecological restoration, reclamation, and along roadsides has resulted in a