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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos, and Glenn S. Sakamoto

The ecological effects of roads impact nearly 15% of the land area of the United States, an area equivalent in size to all conservation areas of the country combined ( Wilkinson et al., 2008 ). Planting roadsides with native species can displace

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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos, and Ruijun Qin

are fire adapted, such as the native Hawaiian grass species tanglehead ( Heteropogon contortus ), simulated combustion products liquid smoke (a commercial food-grade flavoring) and cyanide can be effective germination promoters ( Baldos, 2013

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S. Christopher Marble

An invasive species is defined as “an alien (non-native) species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health” ( USDA, 2018a ). Invasive plants have been subject to significant research from

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A.L. Shober, K.A. Moore, C. Wiese, S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, and M. Paz

Urban population growth and periodic droughts throughout much of the United States have led to increased restrictions on landscape water use. These water restrictions have increased interest in planting native shrub species because natives are often

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Philip J. Kauth and Hector E. Pérez

.52 billion ( Hodges, 2011 ). With support from the federal government, state agencies, and private organizations, the use of native plants has been a growing segment in the horticulture industry ( Executive Order 13112, 1999 ; National Wildlife Federation

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Gianna Ricci and F. Bailey Norwood

Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) production using clones rather than natives has a number of advantages. Clones produce a more consistent harvest, produce more and larger nuts that have thinner shells, and their disease resistance properties are known

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Larry A. Rupp, Richard M. Anderson, James Klett, Stephen L. Love, Jerry Goodspeed, and JayDee Gunnell

-tolerant landscape plants includes both exotic plants (plants not present before western colonization and adapted to the landscaped environment) and/or native plants [for the purposes of this article, species originating anywhere within the Intermountain West region

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Andrzej K. Noyszewski, Neil O. Anderson, Alan G. Smith, Andrzej Kilian, Diana Dalbotten, Emi Ito, Anne Timm, and Holly Pellerin

Reed canarygrass is native to Eurasia and North America ( Lavergne and Molofsky, 2004 ); it is a perennial, wind-pollinated, wetland grass, cultivated in temperate regions around the globe for a forage, bioremediation, ornamental use, and biofuel

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Julia A. Cartabiano and Jessica D. Lubell

There is strong consumer interest in native plants for landscaping [ Garden Writers Association Survey (2010), 2011 ]. Landscape architects and master gardeners would like to use more native plants but have found that a broad palette of native

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Emily C. Baisden, Douglas W. Tallamy, Desiree L. Narango, and Eileen Boyle

The dominant landscaping practice of recent centuries has been to create landscapes designed with ornamental plants that have been introduced from other countries. This practice has been so pervasive that nonnative plant species now outnumber native