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Steven McArtney, Duane Greene, Tory Schmidt and Rongcai Yuan

sufficient return bloom. Table 1. Effects of early summer naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and ethephon sprays applied in 2007 on return bloom of ‘York Imperial’/M.9 apples in 2008 in Virginia. z Table 2. Effects of AVG on the efficacy of early summer NAA and

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Steven McArtney, Dick Unrath, J.D. Obermiller and Ann Green

naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) treatments in 2004 on bloom of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Fuji’ apple trees in 2005. Table 2. Effects of time of four applications of 5 ppm (mg·L −1 ) naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at different times in 2004 on bloom of ‘Golden Delicious

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M. Elizabeth Rutledge, John Frampton, Gary Blank and L. Eric Hinesley

Two methods of application, the Danish Easy Roller and the German Sprühsystem, were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at reducing leader growth (tips of primary axes) of fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] Christmas trees. A commercial product, Sucker-Stopper RTU (1.15% ethyl 1-NAA), was applied to leaders at concentrations of 0 to 500 mL·L−1 when leaders were 8 to 15 cm long. As the concentration increased, leader elongation decreased. The Easy Roller reduced leader growth the most, but leader mortality was unacceptable at concentrations 20 mL·L−1 or greater. Although less effective than the Easy Roller, the Sprühsystem caused negligible mortality of leaders. Applying 40 mL·L−1 with the Easy Roller yielded ≈50% of leaders with target lengths of 20 to 36 cm with little mortality. The Sprühsystem gave similar results at 250 mL·L−1. NAA might be useful for producing dense trees with minimal shearing or for producing more natural, open trees during shorter rotations.

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Hong Zhu, Eric P. Beers and Rongcai Yuan

and Palmer, 1982 ; Yuan and Greene, 2000b ). Some researchers reported that the primary mechanism of fruit thinning by chemical thinners such as naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) is the result of reduced carbohydrates

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C.R. Unrath, J.D. Obermiller, A. Green and S.J. McArtney

preharvest fruit drop can occur independently of fruit ethylene production ( Sun et al., 2009 ). Losses resulting from preharvest fruit drop can be mitigated by applying either naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; Fruitone L; AMVAC Chemical, Newport Beach, CA) or

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Jure Kolarič, Irena Mavrič Pleško, Stanislav Tojnko and Matej Stopar

significant differences among means drawn on the same vertical order. Means separation was done by Duncan's multiple range test ( P < 0.05). NAA = naphthaleneacetic acid; BA = 6-benzyladenine. Ethylene evolution was measured before treatment on the day of

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Hong Zhu, Rongcai Yuan, Duane W. Greene and Eric P. Beers

). Increased abscission of young apple fruit caused by the chemical thinner naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) is linked with increased ethylene production; hence, NAA may act in part through ethylene signaling ( Curry, 1991 ; Zhu et al., 2008 ). The pathway of

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Ray E. Worley

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R. Nunez-Elisea, M.L. Caldeira, W. Ferreira and T.L. Davenport

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Daniel L. Ward, Eric P. Beers, Ross E. Byers and Richard P. Marini

Preharvest abscission of apple [Malus ×domestica (L.) Borkh.] fruits causes significant crop loss in many years. In this study, fruit cutting was used to induce abscission in August and September. Abscission zones of `Redchief Delicious' Mercier strain fruits were sampled 0, 2, 4, and 6 days after cutting. Thin-layer-plate assays were developed and used to identify hydrolytic enzymes active in the abscission zone (AZ) after induction. Increased activity of cellulase, but not polygalacturonase, was detected in the AZ following cutting. Cellulase activity was consistently high in AZs 4 days after cutting. Both AVG (652 mg·L–1) and NAA (10 mg·L–1) applied 2 or 4 days after cutting delayed drop, but NAA delayed drop 1.6 days longer than did AVG. Fruits treated with AVG dropped over a longer period than did control or NAA-treated fruits. Chemical names used: aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG); naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).