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Killian Melsen, Mark van de Wouw, and Ryan Contreras

today ( Huxley, 1942 ). These changes, called mutations, have also resulted in variations within many plant species. Mutations have been the source of improvements in many ornamental species such as japanese morning glory ( Ipomaea nil ; Miyake and Imai

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R.N. Trigiano, M.C. Scott, and G. Caetano-Anollés

The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars `Dark Charm', `Salmon Charm', `Coral Charm' and `Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of `Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing ≈37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars.

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R. C. Sloan Jr., P. G. Thompson, W. B. Burdine Jr., J. L. Main, and P. D. Gerard

`Beauregard' storage roots which were discarded from the Mississippi sweetpotato foundation seed program because of the presence of flesh mutations were bedded in Spring 1991. After the plants were pulled from the roots, the roots were further examined, and the flesh mutations were characterized by size and frequency. The progency from the original roots were examined for flesh mutations for three generations in 1991, 1992, and 1993. The degree of mutation in the original root did not influence the degree of mutation in succeeding generations of storage roots. In 1992 and 1993, the degree of mutation in the third and fourth generation roots did not differ from that of storage roots grown from plants from the foundation seed plant beds.

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Jong-Yi Fang and Siguina Traore

,000 varieties have been produced globally by conventional hybridization techniques and spontaneous mutation, and annually, several hundred new cultivars are released ( Ghisleni and Martinetti, 1995 ). The breeding of Sainpaulia is nevertheless hampered by the

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Robert J. Griesbach, Ronald M. Beck, John Hammond, and John R. Stommel

The Star mutation in Petunia × hybrida results in flowers expressing a white star pattern on a pigmented background. This mutation was first described in 1838 as P. vittata Vilm. ( Ewart, 1984 ). A major breakthrough in breeding occurred

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Loren C. Stephens

barriers exist to conventional breeding methods ( Donini and Sonnino, 1998 ). Although in vitro culture alone has produced many spontaneous mutations or somaclonal variants ( Veilleux and Johnson, 1998 ), the use of chemical mutagens combined with in vitro

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson, and Gourav Sharma

). The most common mechanism of resistance to ALS inhibitors in plants is through a mutation of the ALS gene, usually through a single nucleotide point mutation that changes the amino acid sequence of the ALS protein ( Cross et al., 2013 ; Tranel and

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Jack Olson and Matthew Clark

insight to photosystem II function in variegated grape leaves. Conclusion Leaf variegation in grapevine contributes to morphological differences in effected leaf tissues and results in a reduced plant growth rate. The recessive mutation

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Chu-Hui Chiang, Tsong-Ann Yu, Shu-Fang Lo, Chao-Lin Kuo, Wen-Huang Peng, and Hsin-Sheng Tsay

identify microbes and medicinal plants ( Jigden et al., 2010 ). The amplification refractory mutation system, which has also been described as allele-specific PCR, amplifies on the basis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of different sequences

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V. Poysa

Somatic sectors possessing mutations affecting flower and fruit development were found at a high frequency in an F4 tomato plot. Over the past 4 years, this population has manifested a range of variant phenotypes, including conversion of calyx to leaflets; flecking, striping of sectoring of fruit; and development of “prolific callus” (PC) fruit, characterized by the green fruit bursting open, with new flowering shoots developing from the internal tissue. The variant phenotypes were not stably inherited. The majority of plants having sectors with abnormal flowers, abnormal fruit, or PC fruit developed phenotypically distinct somatic sectors. The aberrant phenotype ratios, the very high frequency of somatic reversions toward normal development, and the range of traits affecting tomato reproductive development indicate this could involve a transposable element interacting with control genes involved in tomato reproduction, with the phenotype partly dependent on the timing of the transposition event.