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Kari L. Hugie and Eric Watkins

quality. For instance, perennial ryegrass generally has better quality at lower mowing heights (3.8 cm compared with 5.0 or 6.3 cm); this increased level of maintenance also results in higher weed pressure than when the grass is maintained at higher

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Ryan C. Bearss, John N. Rogers III, James R. Crum, and Charles A. Silcox

). However, practical excavation methods applicable to fairways have not yet been identified. Fraise (fraize, fraze) mowing cultivation, which was originally purposed for thatch and organic matter management of athletic fields ( Daily, 2016 ), effectively

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Andrew J. Hephner, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Gerald M. Henry

khakiweed for clues to improved cultural management. Environmental stewardship, overreliance on chemical control, and increasing concerns about pesticide resistance have led turfgrass managers to examine cultural practices such as mowing to reduce weed

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Kenneth Cropper, Gregg Munshaw, and Michael Barrett

Smooth crabgrass ( Digitaria ischaemum ) is a common summer annual weed found throughout much of the United States. Its long leaves and prostrate growth give it the potential to become a serious problem in both closely mowed areas such as greens or

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Mohamed A. Shahba, Mohamed S. Abbas, and Saad F. Alshammary

has been reported that paspalum has a low water requirement, a moderate fertility requirement, and resistance to mowing at a range of heights in addition to its superior salinity and drought resistance ( Marcum and Murdoch, 1990 ; Shahba, 2010a

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Yali Song, Patrick Burgess, Hairong Han, and Bingru Huang

, and recreational benefits of turfgrass ecosystems. Environmental and cultural factors, particularly temperature and mowing height, can have profound impact on turfgrass growth and subsequent physiological and environmental functions. The optimal air

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Michel Pirchio, Marco Fontanelli, Christian Frasconi, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Andrea Peruzzi, Lisa Caturegli, Monica Gaetani, Simone Magni, Marco Volterrani, and Nicola Grossi

detergent fiber content makes zoysiagrass more difficult to mow. Thus, to have a high mowing quality, mowers working constantly on zoysiagrass require more sharpening than mowers working on other grasses ( Bevard et al., 2005 ). Being so hard to mow, manila

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Travis W. Gannon, Matthew D. Jeffries, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, Kevin A. Tucker, and Gerald M. Henry

, 2007 , 2009 ). Previous research has reported reductions in crabgrass cover by increasing turf mowing height. Specifically, Dernoeden et al. (1993) reported ≈3% smooth crabgrass cover in non-treated tall fescue mowed at 8.8 cm compared with 40% and

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Joe E. Toler, Jason K. Higingbottom, and Lambert B. McCarty

, infrequent mowing, and grows best in full sun to moderate shade; however, it does not tolerate heavy traffic, compaction, drought, or high-phosphorus soils very well ( Johnson and Burns, 1985 ). Centipedegrass provides a low-maintenance turfgrass needing to

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Walter F. Ray, Geno A. Picchioni, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, and Ryan M. Goss

’. Such attributes include finer texture, increased wear and pest tolerance, and the ability to withstand lower mowing heights ( Harivandi, 1991 ; Meyer and Funk, 1989 ; Watschke, 1990 ). Tall fescue is a relatively heat- and drought-tolerant cool