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Le Luo, Chao Yu, Xuelian Guo, Huitang Pan, and Qixiang Zhang

) var. kaschgarica , and 3) var. tomurensis . Rosa laxa varies considerably in terms of morphological characteristics. There is abundant inter- and intrapopulation genetic diversity among six natural populations of R. laxa var. laxa in the

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Xiao-min Liu, Xin-zhi Zhang, Yi-min Shi, and Dong-qin Tang

resources ( Franco et al., 2001 ; Zhang and Dai, 2010 ). The methods for analysis of genetic diversity in plants were well developed in the last decades, commonly based on the morphological characteristics, seed proteins, isozymes, and DNA markers ( Gepts

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Cevriye Mert

; Martens and Fretz, 1980 ; Mert, 2009 ; Mert and Soylu, 2007 ; Westwood and Challice, 1978 ). Although there have been some descriptions of pollen morphology in Juglandaceae ( Stone et al., 1964 ; Ueno, 1975 ; Whitehead, 1963 ), studies of walnut are

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Cevriye Mert

considered the importance of pollen development and morphology in clarifying the classification and identity of many plant species, e.g., peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], nectarine [ Prunus persica var. nectarina (Ait.) Maxim.], sweet cherry [ Prunus

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Brandon M. Miller and William R. Graves

Moser (1983) found root regeneration could be enhanced by soaking the roots of seedlings of L. tulipifera in solutions of IBA before transplanting. Little information exists on the morphology of seedlings of Carya spp., other than C. illinoinensis

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Santiago Pereira-Lorenzo, María Belén Díaz-Hernández, and Ana María Ramos-Cabrer

Morphological characters (six traits) and isozymes (four systems, five loci) were used to discriminate between Spanish chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Mill.) from the Iberian Peninsula. A total of 701 accessions (representing 168 local cultivars) were analyzed from collections made between 1989 and 2003 in the main chestnut growing areas: 31 were from Andalucía (12 cultivars), 293 from Asturias (65 cultivars), 25 from Castilla-León (nine cultivars), four from Extremadura (two cultivars) and 348 from Galicia (80 cultivars). Data were synthesized using multivariate analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. A total of 152 Spanish cultivars were verified: 58 cultivars of major importance and 94 of minor importance, of which 18 had high intracultivar variation. Thirty-seven cultivars were clustered into 14 synonymous groups. Six of these were from Galicia, one from Castilla-León (El Bierzo), four from Asturias, one from Asturias and Castilla-León (El Bierzo), and two from Asturias, Castilla-León (El Bierzo), and Galicia. The chestnut cultivars from Galicia and Asturias were undifferentiated in genetic terms, indicating that they are not genetically isolated. Overall, chestnut cultivars from southern Spain showed the least variation. Many (58%) of Spanish cultivars produced more than 100 nuts/kg; removing this low market-value character will be a high priority. The data obtained will be of use in chestnut breeding programs in Spain and elsewhere.

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G. Orel, A.D. Marchant, J.A. McLeod, and G.D. Richards

The interspecific and intergeneric relationships of eight species of Juglans (walnuts) and three other members of Juglandaceae were investigated. The following species were included: the American J. australis Griseb., J. neotropica Diels., J. olanchana Standl. et L.O. Williams, J. nigra L., and Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch.; two Juglans from South China, namely, J. sigillata Dode and an unidentified J. sp; an Engelhardia also from China and the Asian J. ailantifolia Carr., Pterocarya stenoptera var. tonkinensis Franchet and the Eurasian J. regia L. Cladistic analysis of 27 multistate morphological characters showed that the juvenile J. ailantifolia possessed similar physical traits to that of the juvenile American Juglans species. The chloroplast DNA in the trnL-trnF region indicated a close relationship between Juglans species. Pterocarya put the root of the cpDNA network among the American species. RAPD analysis was performed using eight primers. A total of 138 fragments were generated but only 78 clearly defined bands were used in the analysis. All the DNA data grouped the tropical/subtropical American Juglans with J. nigra, and the two new Asian species with J. ailantifolia and J. regia. The American species were closely related, more so than their Asian counter parts. The closeness of the investigated species predicts interspecific graft compatibility not only within the Asian and American groups, but also between them.

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Seenivasan Natarajan and Jeff S. Kuehny

considered one of the primary determinants of geographical distribution of plants ( Mahan et al., 1997 ). The phenomenon of thermotolerance has been found in herbaceous and woody plant species and is related to specific morphological traits. Senthil

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Qin Shi, Yunlong Yin, Zhiquan Wang, Wencai Fan, Jinbo Guo, and Jianfeng Hua

stress reduces photosynthetic capacity and then inhibits plant productivity ( Allen et al., 2010 ). Plant roots respond to environmental stresses by undergoing plastic morphological and physiological alteration ( Doussan et al., 1999 ). Leaf transpiration

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Huey-Ling Lin, Jenjira Chumpookam, Ching-Chang Shiesh, and Wen-Hsin Chung

properties of smoke-water in vitro and in vivo for efficacy against damping-off caused by a soilborne Pythium sp. isolated from papaya; and 2) to investigate the effect of smoke-water on the morphology of Pythium sp. using SEM observation. Materials and