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María Ferriol, Belén Picó, and Fernando Nuez

Cucurbita maxima Duch. is one of the most morphologically variable cultivated species. The Center for Conservation and Breeding of the Agricultural Diversity (COMAV) holds a diverse germplasm collection of the Cucurbita genus, with more than 300 landraces of this species. Morphological and molecular characterization are needed to facilitate farmer and breeder use of this collection. With this aim, the morphological variation of a collection of 120 C. maxima accessions was evaluated. The majority of these accessions originated from Spain, which has acted as a bridge since the 16th century for spreading squash morphotypes between the Americas and Europe. South American landraces (the center of origin of this species) were also included. Eight morphological types were established based on this characterization and previous intraspecific classifications. A subset of these accessions, selected from these classification and passport data, was employed for molecular characterization. Two marker types were used; sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), which preferentially amplifies open reading frames (ORF), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). In the main, SRAP marker analysis grouped accessions in accordance to their type of use (agronomic traits) and AFLP marker analysis grouped accessions as to their geographical origin. AFLP marker analysis detected a greater genetic variability among American than among Spanish accessions. This is likely due to a genetic bottleneck that may have occurred during the introduction of squash into Europe. The disparity of the results obtained with the two markers may be related to the different genome coverage which is characteristic of each particular marker type and/or to its efficiency in sampling variation in a population.

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Yan Liu, Hailin Guo, Yi Wang, Jingang Shi, Dandan Li, Zhiyong Wang, and Jianxiu Liu

distance. The color bars indicate the different morphological types as follows (top to bottom): thick and high-density ecotype (green), intermediate ecotype (yellow), high-inflorescence-density ecotype (blue), dwarf high-density ecotype (light pink), wide

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Ana M. Vieitez, Carmen San-José, F. Javier Vieitez, and Antonio Ballester

Somatic embryos were induced on the roots of Camellia japonica L. plantlets regenerated from an in vitro clone of juvenile origin. The embryos appeared to differentiate from epidermic cells and to be connected with the root via a few parenchymatous cells. Somatic embryogenesis occurred on basal medium and with or without various combinations of zeatin, BA, and IBA. Secondary embryos were induced on cotyledons and/or hypocotyl regions of somatic embryos. Two morphological types of somatic embryos were developed, seed-like and bud-like types, and their formation was influenced by the presence of BA in the medium. Embryogenic capacity has been maintained for more than 24 months by subculturing secondary embryos at 7- to 8-week intervals. The best gibberellin/auxin combination for inducing the germination of isolated somatic embryos was GA at 5 mg·liter-1 G A3 and IAA at 1 mg·liter-1. P1antlets were successfully established in planting medium and have continued to grow in a greenhouse. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA); (1α, 2β, 4aα, 4bβ, 10β)-2,4a,7-trihydroxy-l-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10-dicarboxylic acid l,4a-lactone (GA); 1 H -indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); 1 H- indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); 2-methyl-4-(1 H- purine-6-ylamino)-2-buten-l-ol (zeatin).

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Wayne W. Hanna, Brian M. Schwartz, Ann R. Blount, Gary Knox, and Cheryl Mackowiak

plants produced from seed of ‘PP-1’ showed a wide range of morphologic types, none with the vigor and persistence of ‘PP-1’ (data not reported). Therefore, vegetative propagation is the means for establishing this cultivar to maintain its purity. ‘PP-1

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Jacqueline Joshua and Margaret T. Mmbaga

biocontrol agents. Fungal isolates, confirmed as pathogens in pathogenicity tests, were microscopically observed and grouped into morphological types. Bacterial endophytes were observed and characterized using colony morphology, Gram staining, cell morphology

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Gustavo F. Kreutz, Germán V. Sandoya, Gary K. England, and Wendy Mussoline

cultivars selected for experiments in muck and sandy soils, morphological types (butterhead, iceberg, leaf, and romaine), breeding status, and breeder. Sandy soil experiments. The first two experiments (Expts. 1 and 2) were conducted on sandy soils in

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Allan F. Brown, Elizabeth H. Jeffery, and John A. Juvik

these interfertile B. oleracea subspecies maximize genetic variability in the subsequent mapping populations but result in a range of morphological types that form a continuum between the phenotypes of the parents. These populations have been used

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Min Deng, Jianjun Chen, Richard J. Henny, and Qiansheng Li

first Florida croton breeders in Miami ( Brown, 1995 ). Co8 and unnamed cultivar Co39 were close with a genetic distance of 0.17. There were 10 cultivars with five different leaf morphology types in Cluster VI. Leaves in this cluster include narrow

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Clinton J. Steketee, Alfredo D. Martinez-Espinoza, Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Gerald M. Henry, and Paul L. Raymer

than previously reported ( Putman et al., 2015 ). According to Liberti et al. (2012) , two distinct morphological types of S. homoeocarpa have been identified, forming distinct common and Floridian types. However, the Floridian type forms distinct

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Fenghua Shi, Chun Sui, Yue Jin, Hao Huang, and Jianhe Wei

thaliana , and Castanea sativa ( Balk and Leaver, 2001 ; Li et al., 2006 ; Vizcay-Barrena and Wilson, 2006 ; Zhang et al., 2007 ). Apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis are morphological types of cell death. PCD is usually used to describe the processes