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David G. Hall and L.G. Albrigo

tristeza virus are principally vectored by the brown citrus aphid feeding on flush ( Michaud, 1999 ). Growers can monitor citrus to identify peak periods of flush abundance to time applications of fast-acting insecticides to control these insects. If a

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Anthony LeBude, Amy Fulcher, Jean-Jacque Dubois, S. Kris Braman, Matthew Chappell, J.-H (J.C.) Chong, Jeffrey Derr, Nicole Gauthier, Frank Hale, William Klingeman, Gary Knox, Joseph Neal, and Alan Windham

most growers surveyed in LeBude et al. (2012) fell into G2 (32%) or G3 (60%). Respondents in G2 used important components of IPM, for example, phenology of host plants, growing degree days, and keeping records of monitoring, but did so less

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Paul E. Blom and Julie M. Tarara

in vineyards led to the development of an automated system that also monitors crop growth continuously ( Tarara et al., 2004 ). Longstanding and currently practiced approaches to estimating yield are labor-intensive and tend to rely on only one to two

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Donna C. Fare, Charles H. Gilliam, and Gary J. Keever

Efficient usage of current water supplies is of great concern to container-nursery producers. Improving water management first requires knowledge of current commercial container production practices. In this study, irrigation distribution from overhead sprinklers was monitored at container nurseries to determine the distribution and the amount of irrigation applied during a typical irrigation cycle. Several nurseries surveyed had poorly designed irrigation systems; subsequently, irrigation distribution varied widely at sampling dates and within the growing-container block. Uniform distribution was achieved at some nurseries, but required careful monitoring of the irrigation system. Future water restrictions may force nurseries to improve water usage by changing irrigation delivery methods to minimize water use, resulting in reduced surface runoff and effluent from container nurseries.

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J.R. Davenport, C.A. Redulla, M.J. Hattendorf, R.G. Evans, and R.A. Boydston

An accurate yield map is imperative for successful precision farming. For 3 years (1998 to 2000) two to four potato (Solanum tuberosum) fields on a commercial farm in southeastern Washington were yield-monitored using commercial yield monitoring equipment without operator interaction. Multiple potato diggers were used to harvest the fields and diggers used were not necessarily the same at each harvest. In all years, yield monitoring data were missing due to equipment failure or lack of yield monitoring equipment on all diggers. Banding, due to dissimilar calibrations, different equipment used, or differential digger performance was observed in 1998 and 2000. Based on experience described here, some yield monitor data need minimal postprocessing or correction, other data need substantial postprocessing to make them usable, and other data may not be reliable due to equipment failure, improper calibration, or other causes. Even with preharvest calibration, it is still likely that the potato yield monitor data will need differential postprocessing, indicating that yield maps lack accuracy. In addition, comparison to yield data collected at multiple points within the field, this study found that the yield monitor over estimated potato yield. Thus, with some postprocessing, a useful yield map showing within field differences is possible. However, without significant postprocessing, the practice of using multiple diggers and yield monitors for potato harvest, both within and between fields, severely limits the ability to make consistent yield maps in commercial potato operations.

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

high-quality plants, conserving both water and fertilizer. Capacitance substrate moisture sensors have been successfully used to monitor and control drip irrigation based on target θ thresholds for containerized plants grown in greenhouses ( Burnett and

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Julie M. Tarara, Paul E. Blom, Bahman Shafii, William J. Price, and Mercy A. Olmstead

Recently, an approach was described for continuous monitoring of growth and estimating yield in grapevines or other trellised crops [Trellis Tension Monitor (TTM); Tarara et al., 2004 , 2005 ]. Briefly, the technique involves continuous

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Scott Henderson, David Gholami, and Youbin Zheng

preference. In many commercial greenhouse operations, irrigation scheduling is typically based on the experience of the grower by “lifting and touching,” using qualitative, rather than quantitative, information such as using scientific sensors to monitor the

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Kevin Ong, Madalyn Shires, Holly Jarvis Whitaker, Jennifer Olson, Joseph LaForest, and David H. Byrne

identify potential sources of RRD resistance in cultivated roses. The strategy used to accomplish this goal is to engage the public to assist in the monitoring effort for RRD. Because of the widespread nature of this disease, we believe that recruitment and

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Sue K. Dove, and Marc W. van Iersel

, Arduino), for monitoring soil water content and multiple soil, air, and canopy parameters. However, they did not control irrigation based on the collected data; it was used for monitoring purposes only. Our objective was to use open-source microcontrollers