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Mary Lewis, Matthew Chappell, Paul A. Thomas, Rebekah C. Maynard, and Ockert Greyvenstein

Milkweed (Asclepias sp.) is an important pollinator genus across North America and is a host plant for many butterfly species, notably the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). Commercial production of Asclepias is limited to a few species, because most species lack commercial traits, with minimal branching habit, excessive height, and minimal color variation. This study used a commercially viable Asclepias species, butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa L.), as a maternal parent and trialed three different pollination methods in an attempt to create interspecific hybrids. Pollination methods included a traditional method, a pollen–solution-based method, and a novel inverted pollinia method. The inverted pollinia method increased pollination success rates 4-fold among intraspecific crosses of A. tuberosa. When pollination methods were optimized, A. tuberosa was used as the maternal parent, and one-way crosses were made to seven other Asclepias species using the inverted pollinia method. Of the seven species used as pollen donors, four developed hybrid seed successfully: green milkweed (Asclepias hirtella Woodson), purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens L.), showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa Torr.), and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.). As germination methods vary significantly among Asclepias species, three methods of germination were trialed on seed developed via interspecific hybridizations: direct seeded, cold–moist stratification, and embryo rescue. Of the three methods, cold–moist stratification was superior to direct seeding and embryo rescue. This research is the first documented case of a controlled interspecific hybridization event among these species.

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Nikki Hanson, Amy L. Ross-Davis, and Anthony S. Davis

Conspicuous population declines of the iconic monarch butterfly are the result of loss of summer breeding habitat, extreme weather events, and deforestation of overwintering habitat ( Brower et al., 2002 , 2012 ; Casner et al., 2014 ; Flockhart

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Ashby Leavell

practices at the Katherine Dulin Folger Rose Garden to the life cycle of a monarch butterfly at the Butterfly Habitat Garden. Other chapters review a zoo display, native American landscape, French-inspired royal parterre, and a victory garden, to name a few

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Benjamin Campbell, Hayk Khachatryan, and Alicia Rihn

butterfly ( Danaus plexippus )–friendly plants and donate to conservation programs. Each of these studies demonstrates that consumers value and want to aid pollinator insects through their gardening practices [such as purchasing monarch butterfly

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Alicia Rihn and Hayk Khachatryan

. Goldstein, J. Widerholt, R. Mattsson, B. Thogmartin, W.E. 2014 National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation Conserv. Lett. 7 3 253 262 Fairbrother, A. Purdy, J. Anderson, T. Fell, R. 2014 Risks of

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Bethany A. Harris, S. Kristine Braman, and Svoboda V. Pennisi

forage and inadequate diets, mite infestation and diseases, loss of genetic diversity, and exposure to certain pesticides ( Astegiano et al., 2015 ). Other native pollinators, including bumble bees and monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus L.), have

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David C. Zlesak, John A. Eustice, and Cody L. Gensen

butterfly appeal helps to bring movement and interest to the garden and serve as a food source for wildlife. Monarch butterflies have been the prominent species visiting the interspecific ageratum populations from this breeding program, including

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Michael A. Schnelle

groundcover, midheight hardy perennial, and wild flower. Lyreleaf salvia has been noted as a beneficial species to monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus ) in a number of migratory corridors and regions within the United States ( Galea, 2015 ). The nectar

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Raquel Enedina Medina-Carrillo, Samuel Salazar-García, Jorge Armando Bonilla-Cárdenas, Juan Antonio Herrera-González, Martha Elva Ibarra-Estrada, and Arturo Álvarez-Bravo

Investigation of skin colour changes as non-destructive parameter of fruit ripeness of imported ‘Hass’ avocado fruit Acta Hort. 945 189 196 España-Boquera, M.L. Lobit, P. Castellanos-Morales, V. 2010 Leaf chlorophyll content estimation in the monarch butterfly

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Diane M. Narem, Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Chengyan Yue, and Nicole Roth

.E. 2014 National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation Conserv. Lett. 7 253 262 Hahn, M. Brühl, C.A. 2016 The secret pollinators: An overview of moth pollination with a focus on Europe and North