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Rafel Socias i Company, Àngel Fernández i Martí, Ossama Kodad, and José M. Alonso

identification by molecular markers and gene sequencing as well as to the presence of modifier genes affecting the expression of self-compatibility in almond. Fruit Set The first studies of almond pollination were based on fruit set, concluding that the

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

. These may have been contaminants ( Kamemoto et al., 1988 ) or suggest the involvement of other minor modifier genes. In the duplicate recessive model, either the R or O gene, or both R and O genes in the homozygous recessive forms, will result in white

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Attila Hegedüs, Zoltán Szabó, József Nyéki, Júlia Halász, and Andrzej Pedryc

The most commercially grown peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] cultivars do not require cross-pollination for reasonable fruit set; however, self-incompatibility is a well-known feature within the Prunoideae subfamily. Isoelectric focusing and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of S-ribonucleases; PCR analyses of S-RNase and S-haplotype-specific F-box genes as well as DNA sequencing were carried out to survey the self-(in)compatibility allele pool and to uncover the nature of self-compatibility in peach. From 25 cultivars and hybrids with considerable diversity in phenotype and origin, only two S-haplotypes were detected. Allele identity could be checked by exact length determination of the PCR-amplified fragments and/or partial sequencing of the peach S 1-, S 2-, and Prunus davidiana (Carr.) Franch. S 1-RNases. S-RNases of peach were detected to possess ribonuclease activity, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the S 1-RNase was shown, which represents a synonymous substitution and does not change the amino acid present at the position in the protein. A 700-bp fragment of the peach SFB gene was PCR-amplified, which is similar to the fragment size of functional Prunus L. SFBs. All data obtained in this study may support the contribution of genes outside the S-locus to the self-compatible phenotype of peaches.

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Kevin M. Crosby, John L. Jifon, and Daniel I. Leskovar

the presence of multiple genes for resistance to race 2. None of the F 1 lines derived from ‘Uvalde’ or ‘Dulce’ crossed with a susceptible parent were highly resistant, suggesting that some of these modifier genes are recessive in nature (data not

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Karen R. Harris, Kai-Shu Ling, W. Patrick Wechter, and Amnon Levi

virus replication were detected on most resistant plants, it is possible that a modifier gene controlling ZYMV-FL replication may exist in ‘Charleston Gray’. Thus, the CAPS and ZYRP markers are linked to a gene that conditions resistance to the ZYMV

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Sandra E. Branham, Mark W. Farnham, Shane M. Robinson, and W. Patrick Wechter

that originally exhibited DS of more than 10% ( Wechter et al., 2007 ). Inheritance of resistance in B. juncea is likely controlled by multiple recessive genes or by a single recessive gene with interaction of modifier genes ( Wechter et al., 2013

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John R. Stommel

) , inheritance of reduced seed count in our genotypes was in agreement with a single recessive gene model. Deviation from this model in the F 2 generation for the cross of G15C104 × G15C105 may be due to modifier genes that influence seed count. Seed count in

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Gabriele Gusmini, Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, and Todd C. Wehner

parent. That was the case for the F 2 of all crosses whether they were tested in the field or greenhouse. The distribution pattern also supported the presence of a more complex mode of inheritance, with large environmental effects, and modifier genes

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Timothy Coolong

232 Shifriss, O. Paris, H.S. 1981 Identification of modifier genes affecting the extent of precocious fruit pigmentation in Cucurbita pepo L J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 106 653 660 Sikora, E.J. Murphy, J.F. Burkett, J. 2008 Performance of virus

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Jason Prothro, Hussein Abdel-Haleem, Eleni Bachlava, Victoria White, Steven Knapp, and Cecilia McGregor

( gynoecious ) genes in melon and the F ( female ) and M ( monoecious ) genes in cucumber ( Grumet and Taft, 2012 ; Perl-Treves, 1999 ). In addition to these genes, modifier genes affecting sex expression have been described in these species and it has