Plants grown on calcareous soils often exhibit symptoms of Fe-deficiency induced chlorosis despite a high content of total Fe in the leaf tissue. Iron is transported in the xylem primarily as the ferric citrate (Fe-Citr) chelate, and changes in pH, HCO - 3, and Citr can lead to the formation of different Fe-Citr species. Understanding how Fe dissociates from these chelates may help explain why Fe is immobilized in the leaves. The goal was to quantify Fe mobilization (Fe-Mob) from Fe-Citr in an assay system buffered at pH 5, 6, or 7 when: 1) the molar ratio of HCO - 3 to Fe increased in a 1 Fe: 1 Citr system; 2) the molar ratio of Citr increased in a 1 Fe: 3 HCO - 3 system; and 3) solutions were photoreduced (PR) or left in the dark. For non-PR solutions, Fe-Mob from Fe-Citr using 500 μmol NADH was the greatest at the 1 Fe: 0 HCO - 3-level, and decreased as HCO - 3 increased. Fe-Mob also decreased as buffer pH increased from 5 to 7. Increasing the Citr ratio was effective in increasing Fe-Mob, but the effect decreased as buffer pH increased from 5 to 7. PR solutions behaved quite differently. In the 1 Fe: 1 Citr system, little to no Fe-Mob was detected at any buffer pH. However, there were already large pools of Fe2+ in solution, which decreased as HCO - 3 increased, irrespective of buffer pH. Increasing the Citr ratio greatly increased Fe-Mob in the 1 Fe: 3 HCO - 3 system, and mobilization decreased as buffer pH increased. Increasing Citr did not increase the amount of Fe2+ in solution. This work illustrates that increasing the HCO - 3: Fe ratio can lead to an immobilization of Fe, and that increasing the Citr ratio can aid in Fe-Mob from Fe-Citr when the HCO - 3: Fe ratio is high. Increasing the Citr ratio, however, does not increase the amount of PR Fe2+.
Brandon R. Smith and Lailiang Cheng
Sunghee Guak and Leslie H. Fuchigami
Spring-grafted potted `Fuji'/M26 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees were fertigated with Plantex (20N–10P–20K) weekly until 28 Aug., and sprayed with 1000 ppm abscisic Acid (ABA) two times at 5-day intervals in early September. Nitrogen concentrations of leaves, bark, wood, and root tissues were analyzed using near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy at 20to 30-day intervals beginning in August. In general, during leaf senescence, the content of leaf nitrogen decreased and stem nitrogen increased. ABA enhanced leaf senescence and the mobilization of nitrogen from the leaves to the stem tissues. ABA significantly enhanced terminal bud set, endodormancy induction, and cold acclimation. Eventually, the controls attained the similar degree of nitrogen concentration in the stem, terminal bud set, endodormancy, and hardiness.
Lailiang Cheng, Shufu Dong and Leslie H. Fuchigami
Bench-grafted Fuji/M26 trees were fertigated with seven nitrogen concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20 mm) by using a modified Hoagland solution from 30 June to 1 Sept. In Mid-October, plants in each N treatment were divided into three groups. One group was destructively sampled to determine background tree N status before foliar urea application. The second group was painted with 3% 15N-urea solution twice at weekly interval on both sides of all leaves while the third group was left as controls. All the fallen leaves from both the 15N-treated and control trees were collected during the leaf senescence process and the trees were harvested after natural leaf fall. Nitrogen fertigation resulted in a wide range of tree N status in the fall. The percentage of whole tree N partitioned into the foliage in the fall increased linearly with increasing leaf N content up to 2.2 g·m–2, reaching a plateau of 50% to 55% with further rise in leaf N. 15N uptake and mobilization per unit leaf area and the percentage of 15N mobilized from leaves decreased with increasing leaf N content. Of the 15N mobilized back to the tree, the percentage of 15N partitioned into the root system decreased with increasing tree N status. Foliar 15N-urea application reduced the mobilization of existing N in the leaves regardless of leaf N status. More 15N was mobilized on a leaf area basis than that from existing N in the leaves with the low N trees showing the largest difference. On a whole-tree basis, the increase in the amount of reserve N caused by foliar urea treatment was similar. We conclude that low N trees are more effective in utilizing N from foliar urea than high N trees in the fall.
Guihong Bi and Carolyn F. Scagel
mobilized within plants is not known. This information is important for synchronizing the timing of foliar sprays in relation to defoliation treatments. A better understanding of factors that influence N uptake and mobilization after urea sprays is needed to
Horacio E. Alvarado, Rebecca L. Darnell and Jeffrey G. Williamson
Raspberry root growth during fruiting appears to be a strong sink for assimilates, and may decrease carbon availability for fruits and, consequently, cane yield. Both floricanes and primocanes may contribute to root carbon supply in raspberry during fruiting. To test this, `Tulameen' raspberry canes were grown outdoors in containers filled with perlite and peat (1:1). One-half of the plants were girdled and the rest were nongirdled. Within each girdling treatment, either 0 or 3 primocanes were allowed to grow. Treatments were applied at early bloom (10 May), and 50% fruit harvest occurred the first week in June. Fruit number and yield per plant decreased in girdled plants and plants without primocanes compared with nongirdled plants and plants with primocanes. Individual fruit fresh weight was not affected by treatments, but individual fruit dry weight and the dry weight to fresh weight ratio was higher in girdled plants without primocanes than in the other treatments. Neither girdling nor the presence of primocanes affected dry weight allocation to primocanes or floricanes. Root dry weight was higher in girdled plants with primocanes than in nongirdled plants without primocanes. It appears that primocanes supply carbon to roots during fruiting, and subsequently, roots mobilize carbon to floricanes. Thus, roots appear to serve primarily as a translocation pathway for carbon from primocanes to floricanes. However, when primocane growth is suppressed, root carbon is mobilized to support floricane development. If carbon flow from roots to floricanes is restricted, fruit number and yield is significantly decreased.
Douglas D. Archbold and Charles T. MacKown
As the primary nutrient applied to and used by strawberry, N allocation and cycling within the plant may play an important role in determining plant vigor and productivity. Our objectives were to determine 1) how N availability and fruit production affect N and fertilizer N (FN) partitioning among and within the vegetative tissues of `Tribute' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) and 2) if the root N pool is temporary storage N. Plants were fed 15N-depleted NH4NO3 (0.001 atom percent 15N) for the initial 8 weeks, then were grown for 12 weeks with or without NH4NO3 with a natural 15N abundance (0.366 atom percent 15N), and were maintained vegetative or allowed to fruit. The vegetative tissues were sampled at 6 and 12 weeks. Neither N availability or fruiting had consistent effects on dry mass (DM) across all tissues at 6 or 12 weeks. At 6 weeks, the total N content of all tissues except the roots were higher with continuous N than with no N. Nitrogen availability was the dominant treatment effect on all plants at 12 weeks; continuous N increased leaflet, petiole, and total vegetative DM and total N of all tissues. Insoluble reduced N (IRN) was the major N pool within all tissues at 6 and 12 weeks regardless of treatment. Fruiting inhibited root growth and N accumulation at 6 weeks but had little effect at 12 weeks. The roots were a strong dry matter and N sink from 6 to 12 weeks. The FN pools, from the 15N-depleted FN supplied during the initial 8 weeks, exhibited changes similar to those of total N in plants not receiving N, in contrast to plants receiving continuous N where total leaflet and petiole N content increased while FN content declined. Total FN per plant declined nearly 26% over 12 weeks; the decline was greater in plants receiving N continuously than in those not receiving N, but the magnitude of the decline was not affected by fruiting. Increasing atom percent 15N values, primarily in plants receiving continuous N after the initial 8 weeks of receiving 15N-depleted FN, indicated that N cycling occurred through all tissues and N pools, proportionally more in the soluble reduced N pool but quantitatively more in the IRN pool. The root N pool was not a “temporary” N storage site available for re-allocation to other tissues, although N cycling through it was evident. Rather, leaflet N was primarily remobilized to other tissues.
A. Delgado, M. Benlloch and R. Fernández-Escobar
Change in B content of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves during anthesis reveals the appearance of a potent B sink. This phenomenon was more marked in young leaves of bearing trees with a high degree of flowering than in nonbearing trees with a low degree of flowering. Applying B to the leaves at the time of anthesis increased the B concentrations in leaf blades, petioles, bark of the bearing shoot, and flowers and fruit 3 days after treatment. The results suggest that B is mobilized from young leaves during anthesis to supply the requirements of flowers and young fruit.
M.S. Stanghellini, J.R. Schultheis and J.T. Ambrose
Very little is known about the rate at which pollen grains are mobilized within insect-pollinated crop systems, and this is especially true the for commercial production of field-grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), monoecious muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and triploid watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai]. The rates of pollen depletion for these crops were therefore investigated on plots simulating commercial crop production using a mixed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) pollinator complex. At anthesis, staminate cucumber, muskmelon, and watermelon flowers contained on average 10539, 11176, and 30739 pollen grains/flower, respectively. At the time flowers closed in the early afternoon (1300 to 1400 hr), only 61% of the total pollen produced had been removed from staminate cucumber flowers, 44% to 62% from muskmelon, and 81% from watermelon flowers. The results suggest that total pollen production in these crops may not necessarily reflect total pollen availability to floral visitors (bees). However, of the total amount of pollen actually removed per flower, >57% occurred during the 2 h following flower anthesis of cucumber and muskmelon, and >77% occurred during the 2 h following flower anthesis of watermelon. Thus, most of the accessible pollen was removed shortly after anthesis, which is when these crops are most receptive to pollination. Nonviable triploid and viable diploid watermelon pollen were removed at similar rates (P = 0.4604). While correlation analyses were not possible for the influence of variable bee abundance on pollen depletion rates, higher bee populations in one year appeared to increase the rate at which pollen grains were removed from staminate flowers.
Bernadine Strik, Timothy Righetti and Gil Buller
Fertilizer nitrogen (FN) recovery, and changes in nitrogen (N) and dry weight partitioning were studied over three fruiting seasons in June-bearing strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. `Totem') grown in a matted row system. Fertilizer nitrogen treatments were initiated in 1999, the year after planting. The standard ammonium nitrate N application at renovation (55 kg·ha-1 of N) was compared to treatments where additional N was applied. Supplemental treatments included both ground-applied granular ammonium nitrate (28 kg·ha-1 of N) applied early in the season and foliar urea [5% (weight/volume); 16 kg·ha-1 of N] applied early in the season and after renovation. When labeled N was applied (eight of nine treatments) it was applied only once. The impact of no FN from the second through the third fruiting season was also evaluated. Fertilizer nitrogen treatment had no impact on total plant dry weight, total plant N, yield or fruit quality from the first through the third fruiting seasons. Net dry matter accumulation in the first fruiting season was 2 t·ha-1 not including the 4 t·ha-1 of dry matter removed when leaves were mowed during the renovation process. Seasonal plant dry weight and N accumulation decreased as the planting aged. Net nitrogen accumulation was estimated at 40 kg·ha-1 from spring growth to dormancy in the first fruiting season (including 30 kg·ha-1 in harvested fruit, but not including the 52 kg·ha-1 of N lost at renovation). Recovery of fertilizer N ranged from 42% to 63% for the broadcast granular applications and 15% to 52% for the foliar FN applications, depending on rate and timing. Fertilizer N from spring applications (granular or foliar) was predominantly partitioned to leaves and reproductive tissues. A large portion of the spring applied FN was lost when plants were mowed at renovation. Maximum fertilizer use efficiency was 42% for a granular 55 kg·ha-1 application at renovation, but declined to 42% just before plant growth the following spring, likely a result of FN loss in leaves that senesced. In June, ≈30% of the N in strawberry plants was derived from FN that was applied at renovation the previous season, depending on year. This stored FN was reallocated to reproductive tissues (22% to 35%) and leaves (43% to 53%), depending on year. Applying fertilizer after renovation increased the amount of remobilized N to new growth the following spring. The following June, 15% of plant nitrogen was derived from fertilizer applied at renovation 2 years prior.
Aude Tixier, Adele Amico Roxas, Jessie Godfrey, Sebastian Saa, Dani Lightle, Pauline Maillard, Bruce Lampinen and Maciej A. Zwieniecki
) concentration to increase osmotic pressure of cells. During dormancy, maintenance respiration requires mobilization of NSC for survival ( Bonhomme et al., 2005 ). Resumption of growth and organogenesis of new photosynthetic organs requires mobilization of NSC as