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Glendon D. Ascough, Johannes van Staden, and John E. Erwin

some cases; Cohen and Yao, 1996 ); however, it is an indirect method for ploidy assessment. If mixoploid plants are produced, then stomatal size can be an unreliable method and should be combined with another technique ( Chen et al., 2006 ). Chromosome

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Dave I. Thompson, Neil O. Anderson, and Johannes Van Staden

cytometric analysis, seedlings were assigned as being unaltered diploid, solid (non-chimeric), polyploid (tetra- or octaploid), or as various cytochimeric mixoploids with multiple histogram peaks. Results and Discussion Effect of colchicine

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Li-ping Chen, Yan-ju Wang, and Man Zhao

In this study, in vitro induction of tetraploid Lychnis senno Siebold et Zucc. and its cytological and morphological characterization were conducted. For polyploid induction, nodal segments with axillary buds from in vitro grown plants were kept for 3 days in MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) liquid or solid media added with a series of concentrations of colchicine. Out of total 588 recovered plants, 15 tetraploids and 6 mixoploids determined by flow cytometry analysis were obtained. The tetraploid contained 48 chromosomes, twice the normal diploid number of 24, as observed under light microscope. The tetraploid plants exhibited much larger but less stomata than diploid plants. Moreover, significant differences in stem height and leaf size between the diploid and tetraploid plants were noted. The tetraploid plants were more compact than diploids.

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Jodie L. Ramsay, Donald S. Galitz, and Chiwon W. Lee

Influences of culture media and sucrose concentrations on plant regeneration from Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum L. cv. Ace) ovary tissues were investigated. Pistils excised from unopened flower buds (3-5 cm long) were sectioned and cultured on either B-5 medium or Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2%, 5%, or 10% sucrose, with 1 mg·L-1 2,4-D and 2 mg·L-1 BA. Callus formation was most prolific on MS medium containing 5% sucrose. Shoot differentiation was higher on MS medium than on B-5 medium. Rooted plants were transferred into soil medium and grown in a greenhouse. Root tip smears showed that 35% of the regenerated plants showed a variation in chromosome numbers from 10 to 25 per cell, while the rest of the regenerants showed the normal 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes per cell. The mixoploid condition also existed in different root cells of the same regenerated plant. Chemical names used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); 6-benzylaminopurine (BA).

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Marijana Jakše, Pablo Hirschegger, Borut Bohanec, and Michael J. Havey

mixoploid inflorescences and might result in normal flowers capable of self-pollination and production of homozygous DH seeds. Alan et al. (2007) induced somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid plants and suggested that this method might be

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, and Wayne W. Hanna

carbol fuchsin ( Kao, 1975 ). Chromosomes from five cells were counted. Ploidy of histogenic layers of cytochimeras. Plants that were identified as cytochimeras, also referred to as mixoploids, using flow cytometry on leaf material were further

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Eddo Rugini, Cristian Silvestri, Marilena Ceccarelli, Rosario Muleo, and Valerio Cristofori

cuttings were able to reduce plant size when used as rootstock ( Pannelli et al., 1990 , 1992 ). Cytogenetic analyses showed that the mutants, named Frantoio Compact (FC) and Leccino Compact (LC), were mixoploids, whereas a mutant showing a dwarf

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Richard J. Henny, James R. Holm, Jianjun Chen, and Michelle Scheiber

40.2 μm but varied from 38.3 to 47.0 μm. Flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry screening of these 73 plants confirmed that 21 treated and 10 control plants were diploid, whereas 13 treated plants were tetraploid and 29 were mixoploid. Histograms

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Guo-Gui Ning, Xue-Ping Shi, Hui-Rong Hu, Yan Yan, and Man-Zhu Bao

(diploid material) showed a G1 peak on channel 50 ( Fig. 1 , A4). In addition, mixoploid plants with both diploid and tetraploid cells were identified by the presence of two peaks of similar height corresponding in fluorescence intensity to the G1 peaks for

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Lauren E. Deans, Irene E. Palmer, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

cultivar used as an external standard. If samples had ≥20% nuclei in both the diploid and expected tetraploid 2C DNA contents, then they were identified as mixoploids. Samples from three to five randomly selected shoots from separate explants from each