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Milton E. McGiffen Jr., Steven A. Fennimore, W. Thomas Lanini and Carl E. Bell

160 WORKSHOP 22 (Abstr. 694-695) How Future Usage on Minor Crops Is Likely to be Impacted by the Current Regulatory Process Wednesday, 26 July, 2:00-5:30 p.m.

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Chad Hutchinson

160 WORKSHOP 22 (Abstr. 694-695) How Future Usage on Minor Crops Is Likely to be Impacted by the Current Regulatory Process Wednesday, 26 July, 2:00-5:30 p.m.

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Ryan J. Hayes, Bo Ming Wu, Barry M. Pryor, Periasamy Chitrampalam and Krishna V. Subbarao

strategy ( Subbarao, 1998 ). Lettuce drop can be caused by two fungal species, Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum . Although the species are known to coexist in western US lettuce production districts, lettuce drop in the Central Valley of California

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Rebecca Grube and Edward Ryder

Incidence of the disease lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor is often high in California lettuce fields despite the use of cultural and chemical controls. Development of resistant lettuce cultivars has been hindered by the difficulty of evaluating resistance in field tests and the lack of a screening procedure that reliably predicts field performance. Several lettuce genotypes of diverse geographic origin and plant architecture including modern and heirloom cultivars, plant introduction accessions, and breeding lines, were evaluated for resistance to S. minor using several methods. Resistance was evaluated in fields that contained naturally occurring S. minor, in a field that contained both naturally occurring and manually incorporated S. minor inoculum, and in the greenhouse using two types of inocula. Many genotypes exhibited partial resistance to S. minor, with significantly reduced disease incidence relative to susceptible controls. The similarity of disease ratings observed in replicated field tests supports the conclusion that partial resistance is under genetic control. Ratings obtained in some greenhouse tests were highly correlated with field ratings, but this was not true for all tests. Therefore, although greenhouse evaluation with adequate replication and repetition can be used as a selection tool, field testing remains an essential component of S. minor resistance breeding programs.

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Mary C. Koelsch and Janet C. Cole

Vinca minor production in Oklahoma nurseries has declined in recent years due to foliar diseases. A study was conducted to determine whether several labeled and experimental fungicides control these foliar diseases in Vinca minor `Bowles'. This study was conducted outdoors under unusually mild and humid conditions, which were conducive factors for disease symptoms to occur throughout the season. Plants were sprayed at weekly intervals with the fungicides propiconazole (0.95 ml/liter), thiophanate methyl (1.58 ml/liter), thiophanate methyl/mancozeb (1.79 g/liter), triforine (3.95 ml/liter), CC 17461 (3.95 ml/liter), CGA 173506 (0.47/liter), or SAN 619 (0.79 ml/liter). Thiophanate methyl/mancozeb was the most effective of all chemicals at decreasing foliar dieback; however, no chemical completely controlled the disease symptoms throughout the season. Dry weights of plants treated with thiophanate methyl/mancozeb were greater at the end of the season than those of plants receiving the other fungicidal treatments.

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R. Grube* and R. Aburomia

A low to moderate incidence of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor is commonly observed in commercial lettuce fields of all types of lettuce (e.g. crisphead, romaine, leaf, butter) and although partial resistance has been reported, no sources of immunity have been described. We sought to determine whether there was variability between different types of lettuce and among cultivars within types. Replicated experiments were conducted in an infested field using established inoculation procedures. Significant variation in susceptibility to S. minor was detected among cultivars within as well as between major lettuce types. Correlations between lettuce drop susceptibility and plant canopy size, seedling vigor, and additional morphological traits were determined. Variability between different field experiments was also evaluated for several traits and a subset of cultivars. Our results suggest that cultivated germplasm may provide genes that are as useful or more useful than those found in genotypes with more primitive growth habits in developing cultivars with tolerance to lettuce drop.

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Donald N. Maynard

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Paul M. Lyrene

The effects of environmental factors, including chilling duration during dormancy and temperature during flower bud expansion, were studied on the following blueberry flower parameters: corolla length, corolla aperture diameter, stigma location relative to the apex of the corolla tube, position of the anthers relative to the stigma and to the apex of the corolla, and style length. Flowers on plants that were chilled over 1400 hours differed little from those that received only 310 chill units. Flowers that developed under warmer temperatures had significantly wider corolla apertures. In one experiment but not the other, corolla length and style length increased under warmer temperatures. For nearly every parameter in each of three experiments, there were significant environment × clone interactions. Overall, however, it appeared that neither lack of chill units during dormancy nor warm temperatures during flower development changed flower morphology enough to affect fruit set.

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Jose E. Villarreal, Leonardo Lombardini and Luis Cisneros-Zevallos

Pecans nuts from `Kanza' and `Desirable' cultivars were irradiated with 0, 1.5, and 3.0 kGy using electron beam (E-beam) irradiation and stored under accelerated conditions (40 °C and 55% to 60% RH). Antioxidant capacity (AC), phenolic (TP) and condensed tannin (CT) content, HPLC phenolic profile, tocopherol content, peroxide value (PV), and fatty acid profile were evaluated in kernels after 0, 7, 21, 55, and 134 days of storage. Irradiation had no detrimental effects in AC and TP; however, variation was found throughout storage. Tocopherol content of 1.5 and 3.0 kGy kernels decreased after irradiation, but no further decrease was observed thereafter. Irradiated `Desirable' samples had greater PV than controls, while `Kanza' 1.5 kGy samples had increased PV only after 134 days of storage. No change in fatty acid composition was detected for any cultivar. Color modification induced by storage included a decrease in lightness and yellowness and an initial increase of redness followed by a decrease after 98 days of storage. No differences in phenolic profile were observed after irradiation. Compounds identified by HPLC in hydrolyzed extracts were gallic and ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin. In general, beside the decrease in tocopherol content, no detrimental effects were found in antioxidant composition caused by irradiation treatments. While a faster oxidation rate was seen in irradiated kernels for `Desirable' cultivar, no other quality attribute was affected by E-beam irradiation.

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Mary C. Koelsch, Janet C. Cole and Sharon L. von Broembsen

Common periwinkle and `Bowles' periwinkle production has declined in the southern United States due to foliar diseases caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. and Phoma exigua Desmaz. var. inoxydabilis Boerema & Vegh in Vegh et al. Our study determined whether several labeled and experimental fungicides could control pathogens causing foliar diseases in common periwinkle in vitro and outdoors during two consecutive summers. Five concentrations of each of eight fungicides were used to test inhibition of mycelial growth of P. exigua var. inoxydabilis and two isolates of C. gloeosporioides on fungicide-amended agar. All concentrations of propiconazole inhibited growth of P. exigua var. inoxydabilis (100%) and both isolates of C. gloeosporioides (>96%). Cyproconazole completely inhibited mycelial growth of P. exigua var. inoxydabilis. Thiophanate methyl/mancozeb partially inhibited growth of C. gloeosporioides (50%). In outdoor trials, plants were sprayed weekly with the following fungicides and rates (in g a.i./liter): thiophanate methyl/mancozeb, 1.35; propiconazole, 0.14; thiophanate methyl, 0.84; triforine, 0.27; cyproconazole, 0.08; triforine–CC 17461, 0.27; or CGA 173506, 0.90. Thiophanate methyl/mancozeb was most effective at reducing foliar necrosis during both seasons. Shoot dry weights of plants treated with thiophanate methyl/mancozeb were significantly higher at the end of each growing season than those of plants treated with the other fungicides or the nontreated control plants. Chemical names used: dimethyl [(1,2-phenylene)-bis (iminocarbonothioyl)] bis [carbamate] and a combination of zinc ion and manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (thiophanate methyl/mancozeb); 1-[2-(2′,4′-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl-methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole (propiconazole); dimethyl [(1,2-phenylene)-bis (iminocarbonothioyl)] bis [carbamate] (thiophanate methyl); N,N′-[1,4-piperazinediylbis (2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)] bis [formamide] (triforine); 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-butan-2-ol (cyproconazole); N,N′-[1,4-piperazinediylbis (2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)] bis [formamide] with micro emulsion (triforine–CC 17461); 4-(2-2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl) pyrrole-3-carbonitrile (CGA 173506).