-term study for crops other than ornamental plants, mineral nutrition may affect final product quality and yield. Seedling emergence of ornamental peppers. Germination substrate saturated with saline solution at EC 17.1 dS·m −1 reduced germination and
Genhua Niu, Pedro Osuna, Youping Sun and Denise S. Rodriguez
Allen V. Barker
Mineral Nutrition and Plant Disease. Lawrence E. Datnoff, Wade H. Elmer, and Don M. Huber (editors). 2007. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 278 pages. $89.00 Hardcover. ISBN 978-0-89054-346-7. This book covers the relationship of mineral nutrients
, J.B. 1981 Influence of trickle and sprinkle irrigation on ‘Golden Delicious’ apple quality J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 106 255 258 Fallahi, E. Chun, I.J. Neilsen, G.H. Colt, W.M. 2001a Effects of three rootstocks on photosynthesis, leaf mineral
Kaitlyn M. McBride, Richard J. Henny, Terri A. Mellich and Jianjun Chen
Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3rd Ed. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY McBride, K. Henny, R.J. Chen, J. Mellich, T.A. 2014 Effect of light intensity and nutritional level on growth and flowering of Adenium obesum ‘Red’ and Ice Pink
John Clemens and R. Hugh Morton
Containerized plants of Heliconia psittacorum L.f. × H. spathocircinata Aristeguieta `Golden Torch' were grown in a greenhouse for 8 months from early summer to winter under selected combinations of N, P, and K. Fertilizer rates ranged from zero to rates that exceeded those reported in the literature by 50% to 100%. Biomass variables (vegetative and inflorescence dry weight, and leaf area) were predicted to be maximized at high N and high N to P, and N to K ratios corresponding to N-P-K application rates of 1.2, 0.5, and 0.6 kg·m-3, respectively (≈2:1:1). However, the number of shoots and flowers produced per rhizome were maximal at lower N to K ratios (1:1). Flower yield could therefore be optimized with appropriate fertilization, provided attention was paid to the N to K ratio so that the size of plants and their flowers was not compromised by efforts to increase shoot and flower number. The heavier the rhizome planted, the shorter the time for shoot emergence and flowering to occur, and the greater the number of flowers harvested. However, rhizome weight had no effect on number of shoots to emerge. The probability of shoots flowering declined markedly with order of shoot emergence, although this could be increased with appropriate mineral nutrition. The maximum number of leaves subtending the inflorescence (seven) was obtained at high N and P rates. Flower production was probably limited by declining solar radiation in autumn, and by within-plant competition for rooting space.
Baerbel Hoelldampf and Allen V Barker
Coniferous forest trees showing chlorosis and dieback appear to be deficient in Ca and Mg. These deficiencies may be induced by nitrogenous nutrients borne in the atmosphere. This study assessed the roles of nitrogen nutrition and soil on nutrient accumulation by red spruce (Picea rubens, Sarg.) and radishes (Raphanus sativus, L.). Plants were grown in the greenhouse in acid O or A horizons (Typic Haplorthod) collected from a red spruce forest. Plants were grown with a complete nutrient solution with 15 mM N of which NH4 was 0, 3.75, 7.5, 11.25, or 15 mM with the remainder being NO3 -. After 120 days, the spruce needles became chlorotic with 11.25 or 15 mM NH4. Radishes exhibited NH4-toxicity after 28 days. Radishes were larger in the O horizon than in the A horizon. As NH4 was increased, radishes had lesser dry weights and accumulated less foliar Ca. Foliar Ca also was lower in spruce with the higher NH4. Magnesium concentrations in leaves of red spruce and radishes were not affected significantly by increasing NH4 supply. Radishes are suitable indicator plants to study the effect of nitrogen form on mineral nutrition of spruce because each species responded similarly to the treatments.
J. Lopez, L.E. Parent, N. Tremblay and A. Gosselin
In hydroponic recirculating systems, sulfate ions can accumulate to excessive levels and interfere with other nutrient ions. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of four sulfate concentrations on growth and mineral nutrition of greenhouse tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Trust). Tomato seeds were sown in flats and subsequently transplanted into rockwool slabs. Ten days after transplanting, plants were given four sulfate concentrations in nutrient solutions (S0 = 0.1, S1 = 5.2, S2 = 10.4, and S4 = 20.8 mM). The plots were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with four replications. Treatment S0 reduced dry weight of the top portion of the plant. A sulfate shortage in the nutrient solution decreased S concentrations in the leaf and decreased fruit number. Activities and concentrations of major ions in solutions expressed in mM or as row-centered logratios were correlated with corresponding foliar concentrations expressed in grams of nutrient per kilogram of dry matter or as row-centered logratios. Data were presented in this manner in order to explore interactive models describing relationships between mineral composition of both nutrient solutions and plant tissues. High concentrations of sulfate ions in the nutrient solution up to 20.8 mM did not affect tomato growth or yield. Tomato plants appeared prone to sulfate deficiency, but tolerant to sulfate concentrations up to 20.8 mM in the nutrient solution.
Antonio L. García, Jesús Gallego, Vicenta Fuentes, Nuria Nicolás and Ramón Madrid
The effects of different levels of phosphorus fertilization and water provision on the mineral nutrition of two clonal rootstocks of Prunus were studied. Two-year-old Prunus seedlings, Hybrid GF677 (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus) (PH) and Pollizo Puebla de Soto 101 (Prunus insititia) (PI) were planted in an uncultivated calcareous soil (a Xeric torriorthent derived from marl) under greenhouse conditions. They were drip irrigated with subterranean water of slightly alkaline pH (7.63), EC 0.88 dS·m–1, with a low chloride and high sulphate content. The experiment lasted two annual cycles. In October of the second year the leaf nutrient concentration and dry weight of the total leaf weight were determined in four trees of each combination of rootstock × irrigation level × fertilization treatment. The nutritive state of these trees was analyzed by vector analysis. The results point to a highly significant influence of the rootstock nature on the leaf concentrations of most nutrients. Very low Zn and Cu concentrations were recorded on both rootstocks, for both irrigation levels and several fertilizing treatments. Vector analysis confirmed the Cu deficiency resulting from several of the fertilizing treatments and both irrigation levels in PH rootstocks.
Xinhua Yin, Clark Seavert and Jinhe Bai
The effects of in-row groundcover and drip irrigation on mineral nutrition and productivity of sweet cherry are largely unknown in the Pacific Northwest. A field experiment was initialized on the Mel Omeg orchard at The Dalles, Ore., in 2005. This orchard had been managed under microsprinkler irrigation and in-row herbicide application since its establishment in 1998. Two irrigation systems (drip irrigation, microsprinkler irrigation) and four in-row ground management systems (straw mulch, white fabric cover, black fabric cover, and no cover with herbicide applications) were evaluated in a split-plot design with four replicates. Drip irrigation reduced irrigation water consumption by 74% relative to microsprinkler during the entire season from May to September. Compared with no cover, black fabric lowered water use by 8%, and straw mulch and white fabric had a 1% to 3% reduction in water use. Fruit yield was similar for drip irrigation and microsprinkler. There was a trend of yield increase with groundcovers relative to no cover. Fruit firmness, size, and sugar content did not differ regardless of irrigation or groundcover systems. Drip irrigation increased marketable fruits by 5% (absolute value) via reducing fruit surface pitting compared with microsprinkler. Differences in soil-available N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Zn, Mn, Cu, pH, and organic matter were negligible between the two irrigation systems and among the four groundcover treatments. However, drip irrigation resulted in slightly lower concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, B, and Mn in leaf than microsprinkler. Overall, our results suggest that in-row straw mulch and fabric covers and drip irrigation could be feasible management alternatives for sweet cherry production in the Pacific Northwest.
Genhua Niu, Terri Starman and David Byrne
compare the relative salt tolerance of selected garden roses, which are commonly used in southern regions, and to determine the mineral nutrition of these roses when irrigated with nutrient solution with increasing salinity. Materials and Methods Plant