). Both boron and calcium are involved in the composition of cell walls and can maintain their structure and function, while the mineral elements including nitrogen and potassium play roles in the physiological activities of fruits. Many experts conducted
Xiaoli Ma, Xuefeng Liu, Pingwei Xiang, Shichun Qiu, Xiangcheng Yuan, and Mei Yang
Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams
fresh as a salad green ( Kopsell et al., 2012 ). Broccoli microgreens are valued for significant concentrations of cancer-fighting glucosinolates (GSs) as well as being a rich source of carotenoid phytochemicals and essential mineral elements. Because of
Alice Noemí Aranda-Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Edson Namita Higashi, and Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli
al., 2002 ). The interaction among mineral elements creates challenges for the definition of new culture media ( Nas and Read, 2004 , Niedz and Evens, 2007 ). Slow growth of Vriesea spp. in vitro, when compared with other bromeliads, was readily
San-Gwang Hwang, Yi-Ying Li, and Huey-Ling Lin
inoculation to harvest (denoted DIH) were also recorded. All measurements were repeated 10 times. Measurement of substrate mineral elements. Substrate samples were first blanched in a 100 °C oven for 1 h and then placed in a 70 °C oven until completely dry
Jonathan N. Egilia, Fred T. Davies Jr, and Sharon Duray
Hibiscus plants, were irrigated with full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution containing either 0,2,5, or 10 mM potasium(K). After 72 days of K treatment, half of the plants at each K level were subjected to a 21-day slowly developing drought stress cycle and the other half were non-drought stressed (ND). Mid-day leaf water potentials at day 21 was-1.5 to-1.6 MPa (DS), and -0.5 MPa (ND). Leaf K concentration increased with increasing K in nutrient solution for both DS and ND plants, but K was higher in DS than ND plants at 2.5 and 10 mM K. Of the macronutrient cations, only (Ca) was inversely correlated with nutrient solution K, in both DS and ND plants. Leaf concentrations of all the micronutrient cations increased with increasing K supply, regardless of drought stress. Potassium hadt significant positive correlation with total plant and leaf dry weight of DS, but not ND plants. Leaf stable carbon isotope composition (δ13 C,an estimate of long term water-use efficiency), was positively correlated with N, Mg and Ca, and negatively correlated with K, iron (Fe), and K:total cation ratio regardless of drought stress. Both net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were negatively correlated with N and Ca, but positively correlated with K, Fe and manganese in ND plants.
Philip J. White, John E. Bradshaw, M. Finlay, B. Dale, Gavin Ramsay, John P. Hammond, and Martin R. Broadley
MINERAL ELEMENTS REQUIRED BY HUMANS Humans require at least 22 mineral elements for their well-being ( White and Broadley, 2005a ). These can all be supplied by an appropriate diet. However, it is estimated that over 60% of the world's six billion
X. Ferrán, J. Tous, A. Romero, J. Lloveras, and J.R. Pericón
In a 3-year experiment in two drip-irrigated orchards on the Mediterranean coast, boron (B) sprays applied at rates of 0.6 and 1.2 g per tree and a soil B application of 12 g per tree did not increase fruit set or production of Corylus avellana L. `Negret' and `Pauetet' hazelnuts with mid to low foliar B levels (14.3 to 21.8 μg·g-1 dry mass). The average fruit set and nut yields of the trials were, respectively, 66% and 3.54 kg per tree for `Pauetet', and 50% and 4.54 kg per tree for `Negret'. The lack of response to B applications might be due to 1) initial fruit set levels were high; 2) the current B recommendation guidelines (25 to 30 μg·g-1 dry mass) might be adequate for fruit set and yield; 3) the rates of B applied might be too low; and 4) weather and soil conditions, cultivars, and biennial bearing may have masked any response to foliar B application.
Haytham Z. Zaiter, Dermot P. Coyne, Ralph B. Clark, and James R. Steadman
Nine bean cultivars/lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown in three soils/rooting media at pH values of 7.9, 6.5, and 5.8 in greenhouse, growth chamber, and field experiments to evaluate the leaf reaction of the plants to a Nebraska bean rust [Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger var. appendiculatus] isolate US85-NP-10-1. Significant differences were observed for rust pustule diameter between cultivars/lines grown in the three growth media. Plants grown in the medium at pH 5.8 showed significantly larger rust pustule diameters than those of plants grown at pH 6.5 or 7.9. A significant interaction occurred between growth medium and cultivars/lines for the rust reaction. Concentrations of Cl and Mn in leaves were positively correlated with rust pustule diameter. In contrast, concentration of K in leaves was negatively correlated with rust pustule diameter. Plant breeders attempting to improve beans for rust resistance must consider the growth medium pH in evaluating intensity and severity of rust symptoms on leaves.
Abe Shegro Gerrano, Patrick Olusanmi Adebola, Willem Sternberg Jansen van Rensburg, and Sonja Louise Venter
determination of total protein content and the amount of nine essential mineral elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn). The analysis was carried out in the laboratory of the Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, ARC, Pretoria, South Africa. Mineral
Ana Bian and Dongming Pan
areas. In our experiments, N. tazetta L. seedlings were subjected to substrate salinity and salt spray treatments in a greenhouse environment. The growth rate, the allocation of five mineral elements (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , and Cl − ), and the