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Yao-Chien Chang, Hsiao-Wei Chen, and Nean Lee

Photosynthetic rate is reduced during midday in some crops; this phenomenon has been termed as midday depression (MD). Oncidium also suffers greatly from MD in the summer, resulting in reduced growth and poor flowering quality. Since high radiation usually accompanies high temperature midday in the summer, it is difficult to figure out the key factor that promotes MD. We investigated the photosynthetic activities of Oncidium Gower Ramsey in the following conditions: environment-controlled and nonenvironment-controlled. In a growth chamber that simulated field growth conditions, photosynthesis declined dramatically when the temperature was higher than 32 °C. Photosynthesis was also reduced when photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) exceeded the saturating point of Oncidium. Gower Ramsey, which is about 250 μmol·m-2·s-1. However, the reduction was slight when PAR was under 500 μmol·m-2·s-1. Daily photosynthetic patterns were changed when Oncidium Gower Ramsey was grown under different environments. By regression, we found that MD was not directly associated with PAR within the range of 0–400 μmol·m-2·s-1. By contrast, photosynthesis was significantly reduced when temperature was higher than 32 °C. This explains the observation of greater photosynthetic reduction and earlier occurrence of MD when Oncidium Gower Ramsey was grown in rain-shelter rather than in phytotron and growth chamber, since temperature in the rain-shelter was not controlled, while the others were controlled at 25 °C. When Oncidium Gower Ramsey was moved from 35 °C to 25 °C, the photosynthetic depression was relieved.

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S. Kumudini

Cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon (Ait.)] yield has been associated with photosynthate supply. However, the impact of temperature and radiation on photosynthesis of the cranberry plant is not well understood. The objective of this experiment was to characterize the photosynthetic response to radiation and temperature in order to develop a model for estimation of cranberry photosynthetic rates. Two cranberry cultivars, `Stevens' and `Ben Lear', were tested for photosynthetic response at air temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 °C and radiation intensities from 200 to 1200 μmol·m-2·s-1. Depending on temperature, maximum photosynthesis (Pmax) was ≈10 or 12 μmol CO2/m2/s (net photosynthesis) and the saturating radiation level was estimated to be 600 to 800 μmol·m-2·s-1. Cranberry quantum yield was estimated as 0.03 mol CO2/mol photon. Both models; Blackman and the nonrectangular hyperbola with a Θ (angle of curvature) of 0.99 were a good fit for measured photosynthetic rates under controlled environment conditions. The disparity between modeled predicted values, and observed values in the field around midday, indicates a reduction in potential photosynthetic rates in a diurnal cycle that is consistent with the phenomenon of midday depression.

Open access

Yingli Ma, Tingting Yuan, Tao Wang, Jiaxin Li, Zhongqiu Xu, Siqian Luo, and Yinfeng Xie

that the P. heterophylla leaves in T1 had a bimodal response in P n , displaying a discernable photosynthetic midday depression (1300 hr ), with two peaks occurring at 0900 and 1500 hr , with the first peak being higher than the second. Compared

Open access

Jiaxin Li, Yingli Ma, and Yinfeng Xie

in P n and presented a double peak configuration: a discernible photosynthetic midday depression (11:00 am to 1:00 pm ) together with two peaks occurring at 10:00 am and 2:00 pm . Compared with the control, the treatment with the ideal

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David M. Glenn

combination of PF and adequate water could maintain maximum A rates at full sun levels during the midday period and minimize the midday depression of A that is commonly observed and reduces the daily carbon accumulation. The increased carbon accumulation

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Juan Carlos Diaz-Perez and Kenneth Shackel

Tomato fruits showed diurnal fluctuations in size in addition to long-term irreversible enlargement. Diurnal fluctuations were highly related to the stage of fruit development. In all stages, the maximum relative growth rate occurred in the morning and the minimum RGR at midday. Midday depression of RGR became more severe as fruits developed. In young fruits, RGR was nearly constant over the day. A small depression in growth was observed only at midday. In more developed fruits, RGR was positive during the first half of the day, followed by near zero values in the afternoon, and a. recovery in early night. In mature fruits, overall fruit growth was minimum and RGR was positive only in the morning. Fruit shrinkage was often seen at midday in mature fruits.

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Gina E. Fernandez and Marvin P. Pritts

Seasonal changes in growth, mean maximal photosynthetic rates, and the temperature and light response curves of `Titan' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) were obtained from potted plants grown under field conditions. Primocane dry weight accumulation increased steadily at the beginning and the end of the season, but growth slowed midseason during fruiting. The slower midseason dry-weight accumulation rate coincided with an increase in root dry weight. Primocane net assimilation rate (NAR) was highest early in the season. Floricane photosynthetic rates (A) were highest during the fruiting period, while primocane A remained steady throughout the season. Primocane and floricane leaflets displayed a midday depression in A under field conditions, with a partial recovery in the late afternoon. Photosynthetic rates of primocane and floricane leaves were very sensitive to temperature, exhibiting a decline from 15 to 40C. Light-response curves differed depending on cane type and time of year. A temporal convergence of sink demand from fruit, primocanes, and roots occurs when plants experience high temperatures. These factors may account for low red raspberry yield.

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O. Ayari, M. Dorais, and A. Gosselin

Daily and seasonal variations of photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorescence and foliar carbohydrate content were studied in situ on greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Trust') plants grown under CO2 enrichment and supplemental lighting. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of seasonal variation of the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on photosynthetic efficiency of tomato plants and to determine the presence or absence of photosynthetic down-regulation under greenhouse growing conditions prevailing in northern latitudes. During winter, the fifth and the tenth leaves of tomato plants showed low, constant daily photosynthetic activity suggesting a source limitation under low PPF. In winter, the ratio of variable to maximum Chl-a fluorescence in dark adapted state (Fv/Fm) remained constant during the day indicating no photoinhibition occurred. In February, an increase in photosynthetic activity was followed by a decline during March, April, and May accompanied by an increase in sucrose and daily starch concentrations and constant but high hexose level. This accumulation was a long-term response to high PPF and CO2 enrichment which would be caused by a sink limitation. Thus, in spring we observed an in situ downregulation of photosynthesis. The ratio Fv/Fm decreased in spring compared to winter in response to increasing PPF. The daily decline of Fv/Fm was observed particularly as a midday depression followed by a recovery towards the end of the day. This indicated that tomato leaves were subject to a reversible inhibition in spring. Fv/Fm was lower in March than in April and May even though PPF was higher in April and May than in March. These results suggest that tomato plants develop an adaptive and protective strategy as PPF increases in spring.

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M. Brakke and L.H. Allen Jr.

Midday reductions of stomatal conductance and carbon dioxide assimilation rates (Aco2) in Citrus are typically attributed to large leaf-to-air vapor-pressure differences or high atmospheric vapor-pressure deficits (VPD). This study investigated air temperature (Ta) and available soil water (ASW) level as corollary factors of atmospheric VPD that influence midday reduction of net gas exchange in citrus leaves. The influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 under conditions that inhibit net canopy Aco2 was also investigated. Net canopy Aco2 and evapotranspiration rates of Carrizo citrange [Poncirus trifoliata Raf × Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and Swingle citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf × C. paradisii Macf.) seedlings grown in outdoor controlled-environment growth chambers were measured under two levels of Ta with concomitant changes in VPD and two levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration, which were changed in steps over time. Cyclical depletion of ASW was allowed to occur at each set of Ta/VPD and CO2 combinations. Highest net canopy Ace, rates at ambient CO2 concentration (330 μmol·mol-1) were obtained at the low Ta/VPD level (29C/2.4 kPa) and ASW >50%. Diurnal canopy CO2 uptake rates decreased at the high Ta/VPD level (37C/3.6 kPa), and midday depression of canopy Aco2 was observed at ASW levels <50%. Net canopy Aco2 decreased at higher levels of ASW under the high Ta/VPD treatment than at the low Ta/VPD treatment. At the elevated CO2 concentration (840 μmol·mol-1) net canopy CO2 uptake rates were double those that occurred at ambient CO2 levels and they did not exhibit midday reduction. Our data indicate that, when soil water is not readily available, citrus seedlings are more sensitive to high levels of Ta and VPD which results in reduction of CO2 uptake. The inhibitory effects of elevated VPD and reduced ASW on citrus net Aco2 were lessened at the elevated atmospheric CO2 level.

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Thomas E. Marler and Leah E. Willis

Leaf gas exchange characteristics for 16 species of cycad were determined under field conditions in Miami, Fla. Net CO2 assimilation (ACO2) ranged from 4.9 μmol·m-2·s-1 for Lepidozamia peroffskyana Regel to 10.1 μmol·m-2·s-1 for Zamia furfuracea L. fil. in Aiton. Stomatal conductance to H2O (gs) was more variable, ranging from 85 mmol·m-2·s-1 for Cycas seemannii A. Br. to 335 mmol·m-2·s-1 for Encephalartos hildebrandtii A. Br. & Bouche. Transpiration (E) ranged from 1.7 mmol·m-2·s-1 for Cycas chamberlainii W.H. Brown & Keinholz to 4.8 mmol·m-2·s-1 for Encephalartos hildebrandtii. Highly variable E was more controlling of water-use efficiency than the less-variable ACO2. The difference between air and pinnae temperature ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 °C and was inversely related to mean gs among the species. The values within geographic regions representative of the native habitats of the species were highly variable. For example, two of the African species exhibited the highest and lowest values of water-use efficiency in the survey. Leaf gas exchange for the four largest species with arborescent growth form was less than that for the three small species with subterranean or short bulbous growth form. The diurnal variation in leaf gas exchange for Zamia furfuracea exhibited a two-peaked pattern with a distinct midday depression in ACO2 and gs. The ratio of dark respiration to maximum ACO2 for Zamia furfuracea was 0.04. As a group, the values for ACO2 and gs for these cycads ranked at the lower end of the range for all plants species.