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Esnath T. Hamadziripi, Karen I. Theron, Magdalena Muller, and Willem J. Steyn

We hypothesized that the microclimate at different positions in the tree canopy may affect the appearance, eating quality, and consumer preference for apple fruit. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the internal and external quality of inner and outer canopy apples in relation to consumer preference for the eating quality and appearance of these fruit. We determined peel color, flesh firmness, percentage starch breakdown, soluble solids concentration (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and dry matter concentration (DMC) for inner and outer canopy ‘Starking’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and ‘Granny Smith’ from the Ceres region in South Africa in the 2009–10 and 2010–11 seasons. We also determined reducing sugars, total phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity in the 2009–10 season. A trained panel assessed the sensory characteristics of fruit while consumers were asked to indicate their liking for the eating quality and appearance of fruit. Outer canopy fruit of all three cultivars had higher antioxidant capacity, TSS, DMC, lower TA, and were generally sweeter than inner canopy fruit. Consumers could discern eating quality differences and generally preferred the eating quality of outer canopy fruit. The appearance of outer canopy fruit was not preferred in the “green” cultivars, probably as a result of the unfamiliarity of consumers with such fruit. Consumers did, however, prefer the redder outer canopy to the less red inner canopy ‘Starking’ fruit. The redness of ‘Starking’ fruit in this study can therefore be seen as a true signal of eating quality, i.e., the redder the fruit, the better the eating quality, and this would probably apply to other fully red and bicolored apple cultivars. Hence, the classification of red cultivars into different quality classes based on the extent of red color development seems justified from an eating quality perspective. In contrast, blushed outer canopy ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ are culled for aesthetic reasons. It might be possible to develop a niche local market for these blushed fruit based on their better eating quality. Our data were generated in older orchards with trees planted at low density and with large canopies. Planer, two-dimensional canopies are likely to reduce the differences between inner and outer canopy fruit. Differences in macroclimate or in fruit maturity between seasons may also have an overbearing effect on fruit quality parameters compared with canopy microclimatic conditions.

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Oliver Körner, Jesper Mazanti Aaslyng, Andrea Utoft Andreassen, and Niels Holst

., 1994 ). In the early 1990s, a complete dynamic climate control concept was first developed ( Aaslyng et al., 2003 ) and constantly further developed since then. The system aims at optimizing the greenhouse microclimate to ensure maximum net dry matter

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Garry V. McDonald, Michael A. Schnelle, and Michael A. Arnold

2008 ; McClendon et al., 2007 ). This species list is not exhaustive, but represents palm species that are being grown commercially and thus available to the landscape industry and homeowners. Microclimates, heat islands, or protected areas may allow

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Bau-Show Lin and Yann-Jou Lin

Plants in the urban environment have many functions such as modulating the microclimate, reducing air and noise pollution, providing a habitat for urban wildlife in addition to their aesthetic values. Landscape designers may have choices in

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Juan J. Polari, Louise Ferguson, and Selina C. Wang

economically important nut crop after almonds and walnuts. Though a relatively young industry, economic production started in 1974; acreage is expanding rapidly because of profitability, Caliornia’s suitable microclimates, and market demand ( Blank, 2016

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Kamal Aberkani, Xiuming Hao, Damien de Halleux, Martine Dorais, Stephen Vineberg, and André Gosselin

layers of polyethylene film used as a greenhouse covering material ( Villeneuve et al., 2005 ). To our knowledge, there have been no experiments to date studying the effects of shading using a liquid foam technology on greenhouse and plant microclimates

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Kelly M. Gude, Eleni D. Pliakoni, Brianna Cunningham, Kanwal Ayub, Qing Kang, Channa B. Rajashekar, and Cary L. Rivard

relevant microclimate canopy and soil temperature, and GDD accumulation during spring, summer, and fall. The second objective was to understand the effect of high tunnel covering on crop productivity, yield, and Pn of tomato and lettuce. This study is a

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Elisha Otieno Gogo, Mwanarusi Saidi, Jacob Mugwa Ochieng, Thibaud Martin, Vance Baird, and Mathieu Ngouajio

the rural poor. The use of agronets represents a technology with a potential of not only providing resource-poor farmers with low cost pest control, but also for better crop performance through modified crop microclimate. Studies in Benin–West Africa

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Ajay Nair and Mathieu Ngouajio

create a specific microclimate around the plant. Understanding the microclimate and its impact on plant growth and morphology is critical for making good use of rowcover technology. Our study focuses on the use of spun-bond polypropylene rowcovers in

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Sarah A. Masterson, Megan M. Kennelly, Rhonda R. Janke, and Cary L. Rivard

leaf and/or tissue may prevent excessive evapotranspiration and therefore reduce or eliminate the need for microclimate management. The leaves probably play an important role in graft union formation due to their ability to provide photosynthate during