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Zahangir Kabir, Steven A. Fennimore, John M. Duniway, Frank N. Martin, Gregory T. Browne, Christopher Q. Winterbottom, Husein A. Ajwa, Becky B. Westerdahl, Rachael E. Goodhue, and Milton J. Haar

Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Financial support was provided by the USDA–CSREES Methyl Bromide Transitions Program (00-51102-9553, 2002-51102-01929). Material support was provided by the California Strawberry Commission, Lassen

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S.M. Schneider, B.D. Hanson, J.S. Gerik, A. Shrestha, T.J. Trout, and S. Gao

Soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) has commonly been used before planting open-field perennial crop nurseries to meet grower expectations and government regulations designed to ensure high-quality planting stock for domestic and international

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Steven A. Fennimore, Milton J. Haar, Rachael E. Goodhue, and Christopher Q. Winterbottom

Commission, 1999 ). The diversity of climates in California along with the use of methyl bromide (MB) fumigation permits the production of high-quality runner plants. Strawberry runner plant production begins in virus-free rearing facilities, i

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James P. Gilreath, Bielinski M. Santos, and Timothy N. Motis

placing drip irrigation lines and polyethylene mulch ( Peres et al., 2006 ). Soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MBr) was an effective means of controlling sting nematode populations. However, this fumigant has been phased out in compliance with the

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S.A. Fennimore, M.J. Haar, and H.A. Ajwa

The loss of methyl bromide (MB) as a soil fumigant has created the need for new weed management systems for crops such as strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne). Potential alternative chemicals to replace methyl bromide fumigation include 1,3-D, chloropicrin (CP), and metam sodium. Application of emulsified formulations of these fumigants through the drip irrigation system is being tested as an alternative to the standard shank injection method of fumigant application in strawberry production. The goal of this research was to evaluate the weed control efficacy of alternative fumigants applied through the drip irrigation system and by shank injection. The fumigant 1,3-D in a mixture with CP was drip-applied as InLine (60% 1,3-D plus 32% CP) at 236 and 393 L·ha-1 or shank injected as Telone C35 (62% 1,3-D plus 35% CP) at 374 L·ha-1. Chloropicrin (CP EC, 95%) was drip-applied singly at 130 and 200 L·ha-1 or shank injected (CP, 99%) at 317 kg·ha-1. Vapam HL (metam sodium 42%) was drip-applied singly at 420 and 700 L·ha-1. InLine was drip-applied at 236 and 393 L·ha-1, and then 6 d later followed by (fb) drip-applied Vapam HL at 420 and 700 L·ha-1, respectively. CP EC was drip-applied simultaneously with Vapam HL at 130 plus 420 L·ha-1 and as a sequential application at 200 fb 420 L·ha-1, respectively. Results were compared to the commercial standard, MB : CP mixture (67:33) shank-applied at 425 kg·ha-1 and the untreated control. Chloropicrin EC at 200 L·ha-1 and InLine at 236 to 393 L·ha-1 each applied singly controlled weeds as well as MB : CP at 425 kg·ha-1. Application of these fumigants through the drip irrigation systems provided equal or better weed control than equivalent rates applied by shank injection. InLine and CP EC efficacy on little mallow (Malva parviflora L.) or prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculare L.) seed buried at the center of the bed did not differ from MB : CP. However, the percentage of weed seed survival at the edge of the bed was often higher in the drip-applied treatments than in the shank-applied treatments, possibly due to the close proximity of the shank-injected fumigant to the edge of the bed. Vapam HL was generally less effective than MB : CP on the native weed population or on weed seed. The use of Vapam HL in combination with InLine or CP EC did not provide additional weed control benefit. Chemical names used: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D); sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate (metam sodium); methyl bromide; trichloro-nitromethane (chloropicrin).

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Eva García-Méndez, David García-Sinovas, Maximo Becerril, Antońeta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, Anselmo Martínez-Treceño, Steven A. Fennimore, Carmen Soria, Juan J. Medina, and Jóse M. López-Aranda

For years, strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa L.) runner plant nurseries have relied on methyl bromide (MB) or mixtures of MB and chloropicrin (Pic) fumigation of soil to produce healthy transplants ( Ajwa et al., 2003 ; Kabir et al., 2005

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Sanjeev K. Bangarwa, Jason K. Norsworthy, Ronald L. Rainey, and Edward E. Gbur

quantity and quality beneath the mulch. However, the physical barrier is ineffective against nutsedge species because their sharp-pointed shoot tips can pierce the plastic mulch ( Patterson, 1998 ). For effective weed control, methyl bromide, a preplant

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Robert E. Uhlig, George Bird, Robert J. Richardson, and Bernard H. Zandstra

Fumigants are used to control soil-borne pests to obtain larger yields of high-quality horticultural products ( Messenger and Braun, 2000 ). Methyl bromide has been the most widely used fumigant, with 68,424 t used worldwide in 1996. The United

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Olha Sydorovych, Charles D. Safley, Rob M. Welker, Lisa M. Ferguson, David W. Monks, Katie Jennings, Jim Driver, and Frank J. Louws

Methyl bromide is a highly effective broad-spectrum fumigant used extensively to control a wide variety of soilborne pests in U.S. agriculture. Under the Montreal Protocol of 1991, MeBr was defined as a chemical that contributes to the depletion of

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José M. López-Aranda, Luis Miranda, Juan J. Medina, Carmen Soria, Berta de los Santos, Fernando Romero, Rosa M. Pérez-Jiménez, Miguel Talavera, Steve A. Fennimore, and Bielinski M. Santos

Strawberry production in Spain has exclusively relied upon the use of methyl bromide (MBr) alone or in combination with chloropicrin (Pic) as preplant soil fumigation treatments for control of soilborne diseases, nematodes, and weeds ( Calatrava