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Zhongshuai Gai, Yu Wang, Jutang Jiang, Hui Xie, Zhaotang Ding, Shibo Ding and Hui Wang

recently, the technology of molecular markers has proven to be one of the most effective methods for identifying different tea varieties ( Chen et al., 2005 ; Chen and Yamaguchi, 2010 ; Yao et al., 2008 ). Metabolomics has become a powerful platform that

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David R. Rudell, Sara Serra, Nathanael Sullivan, James P. Mattheis and Stefano Musacchi

approach for understanding plant physiological reactions to biotic and abiotic stressors and/or environmental variation, such as alteration of nutrient or light regimes ( Carreno-Quintero et al., 2013 ). Metabolomic response can precede transcriptome

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Mudau N. Fhatuwani and Makunga P. Nokwanda

populations Lerotholi et al. (2017) . Studies focused on metabolomic analysis of bush tea are, thus, urgently needed. Disparate environments and seasonal changes contribute to variable phytochemical accumulation in plants influencing both primary and

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Marija Perić, Slavica Dmitrović, Suzana Živković, Biljana Filipović, Marijana Skorić, Ana Simonović and Slađana Todorović

conservation, but also to obtain material for planned metabolomic analyses. Materials and Methods Plant material and the establishment of in vitro cultures. R. umbellata embryos excised from immature seeds were used as primary explants for the establishment of

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Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, Wenjuan Yu and Bingru Huang

magnetic resonance spectroscopy Metabolomics 4 312 327 Chaves, M.M. 1991 Effects of water deficits on carbon assimilation J. Expt. Bot. 42 1 16 Chaves, M.M. Flexas, J. Pinheiro, C. 2009 Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: Regulation mechanisms

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Iban Eduardo, Pere Arús, Antonio José Monforte, Javier Obando, Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Juan Antonio Martínez, Antonio Luís Alarcón, Jose María Álvarez and Esther van der Knaap

A melon (Cucumis melo L.) genomic library of near-isogenic lines derived from the cross between the Spanish cultivar Piel de Sapo and the exotic accession PI 161375 has been evaluated for fruit quality traits in four different locations. Traits evaluated were fruit weight, soluble solids content, maximum fruit diameter, fruit length, fruit shape index, ovary shape index, external color, and flesh color. Among these traits, soluble solids content showed the highest genotype × environment interaction, whereas genotype × environment interactions for fruit shape and fruit weight were low. Heritability was high for all traits except soluble solids content, with the highest value for fruit shape and ovary shape. Ten to 15 quantitative trait loci were detected for soluble solids content, fruit diameter, fruit length, and fruit shape; and four to five for ovary shape, external color, and flesh color. Depending on the trait, between 13% and 40% of the detected quantitative trait alleles from PI 161375 increased the trait, and between 60% and 87% of them decreased it, resulting in some PI 161375 alleles of interest for breeding. Most of the quantitative trait loci detected in previous experiments could be verified with the near-isogenic line population. Future studies with the melon near-isogenic line genomic library will provide a better understanding of the genetic control of melon fruit quality in a wider context related to agronomy, genetics, genomics and metabolomics studies.

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Faith J. Wyzgoski, A. Raymond Miller, Joseph C. Scheerens, Peter L. Rinaldi, Bert L. Bishop, R. Neil Reese, Mustafa Ozgen, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr., M. Monica Giusti and Joshua A. Bomser

We have developed a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based approach to metabolomics research that enables the identification of bioactive compounds in crude plant extracts. For this work, we used black raspberries, which are known to contain compounds that exhibit chemopreventive activity toward oral, esophageal, and colon cancers. To ascertain bioactive components and their interrelationships, NMR results for black raspberry samples from four cultivars grown on commercial farms in Ohio were examined using principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis that included anthocyanin content (HPLC), antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP), total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteau assay), and bioactivity as measured by inhibition of colon cancer HT-29 cell line proliferation showed correlations with specific regions of NMR spectra at 400 MHz. Correlations were also observed for major and minor groupings of the black raspberry samples. Replicate black raspberry samples were examined with a 750 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a cryoprobe that provided a 4- to 5-fold improvement in sensitivity. In this manner, even minor bioactive components in black raspberries could be examined to determine additive and synergistic effects.

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Tyler J. Simons, Christopher J. McNeil, Aubrey D. Pham, Carolyn M. Slupsky, Mikeal L. Roose and Jean-Xavier Guinard

‘DaisySL’ mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) grafted to Schaub Rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush; SHRL) Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.; CARR), and Rubidoux Trifoliate [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.; RUBT] rootstocks were measured to determine their liking by adults and children, sensory properties, and targeted metabolomics over the course of 2 consecutive years. Chemical measurements showed differences in sugars, acids, and ethanol content, whereas a descriptive analysis found variations in sweetness, mandarin flavor, juiciness, and peelability. During both years, adults significantly preferred ‘DaisySL’ mandarins grafted to CARR and RUBT over those grafted to SHRL (P ≤ 0.05). Children liked the fruit grafted to CARR and RUBT rootstocks significantly more than fruit grafted to SHRL during the first year, but they did not prefer fruit grafted to any rootstock during the second year. This research found that ‘DaisySL’ mandarins are a well-liked variety of mid-to-late season mandarin capable of filling the seasonal gap between clementine and W. Murcott varieties. We concluded that the rootstock can affect the chemical composition, sensory profile, and consumer preferences for ‘DaisySL’ mandarins.

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Rachel S. Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, James P. Mattheis and David R. Rudell

reduced soft scald/soggy breakdown in one experiment, but was not consistent for controlling soft scald/soggy breakdown in ‘Honeycrisp’ ( Watkins et al., 2004 ). Metabolomics has been described as the apogee of the omics trifecta, among transcriptomics and

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Allen V. Barker

Natural Product Biosynthesis in the Pregenomics and Genomics Eras.” The introduction of this chapter gives definitions of words such as genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, which appear to be coined words but which have important meanings in studies of