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Kemin Su, Dale J. Bremer, Richard Jeannotte, Ruth Welti, and Celeste Yang

the present-day transition zone ( National Assessment Synthesis Team, 2000 ). Thus, understanding the mechanisms of heat tolerance is increasingly important for turfgrass breeders and managers. Cellular membranes, which are selectively permeable

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Magaji G. Usman, Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohd Razi Ismail, Mohammad Abdul Malek, and Mohammad Abdul Latif

damage to plant function, affecting various physiological and metabolic processes in plants, and is detrimental in terms of growth and productivity ( Ahmed and Hassan, 2011 ; Hall, 2010 ). Cell membrane thermostability is a phenotypic parameter used in

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Qi Zhang, Jack Fry, Channa Rajashekar, Dale Bremer, and Milton Engelke

freezing tolerance in Zoysia spp. to assist in selection and development of high-quality, cold-tolerant cultivars. Membranes are the primary sites of freezing injury in plants ( Steponkus and Wiest, 1978 ). During freeze-induced dehydration, plasma

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Ching-Hsueh Wang, Der-Ming Yeh, and Chian-Shinn Sheu

may carry heat tolerance genes. Heat-delay-insensitive chrysanthemum genotypes exist, but screening for the desired seedlings by greenhouse or field evaluation techniques is slow ( Anderson and Ascher, 2001 ; De Jong, 1989 ). Cell membrane

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Aneela Nijabat, Adam Bolton, Muhammad Mahmood-ur-Rehman, Adeel Ijaz Shah, Rameez Hussain, Naima Huma Naveed, Aamir Ali, and Philipp Simon

challenging. Heat stress response is a complex phenomenon ( Chinnusamy et al., 2004 ) that involves various physiological changes, resulting in damage to the cell membrane. Cell membrane damage due to exposure to heat results from membrane protein denaturation

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Ozlem Altuntas, H. Yildiz Dasgan, and Yelderem Akhoundnejad

apex). Measurements were made with a pressure chamber (Soil Moisture Equipment Corp., Goleta, CA) between 1000 and 1100 hr solar time ( Pearcy et al., 1989 ). Membrane electrolyte leakage. Both salinity and Si affect membrane characteristics

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Sukhvinder Pal Singh and Zora Singh

, and bleeding or bladderiness. CI has been proposed to be an oxidative phenomenon linked to the production of ROS causing lipid peroxidation, membrane damage, and overall reduced capacity of antioxidant systems ( Hodges et al., 2004 ; Singh and Singh

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Richard Voisine, Claude Willemot, and Louis Vézina

Cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea) were irradiated at 0, 2, and 4 kGy and stored 8 days at 13°C. Development of yellow color and browning of the in florescence, increase in membrane electrolyte leakage and reduction of protein recovery in microsomal membranes were observed over the storage period. Changes in membrane free fatty acids, lipid phosphorus content, peroxydation level, and fatty acid composition of polar lipids also occurred. These results indicate an important modification of cellular membranes. The direct effect of gamma rays on membrane lipids via free radical production and subsequent destabilization of the lipid bilayer during storage could be responsable for earlier onset of senescence.

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Brenda A. del Rosario, Robert L. Shewfelt, and Albert C. Purvis

Evidence is accumulating that mitochondria possess defense mechanisms which effectively protect component membranes from the attack by active oxygen species which are produced continuously within the organelle. This study compared the stability of microsomal (from bell pepper fruit pericarp and cauliflower florets) and mitochondrial (from bell pepper fruit pericarp) membranes against peroxidative challenge systems (cumene hydroperoxide and iron-ascorbate). Protein concentration, (i-tocopherol levels, and total lipids were observed to decrease for both membranes when challenged. The onset of peroxidation was observed to be earlier and at higher levels in microsomes than in mitochondria. These results demonstrate the increased stability of mitochondrial membrane fractions to peroxidative challenge and suggest that the level of antioxidants and not fatty acid composition is the critical factor in resistance to oxidative stress in plant mitochondria.

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Neil O. Anderson, Mi-kyoung Won, and Dong-chan Kim

flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 69 485 491 Chauhan, Y.S. Senboku, T. 1996 Thermostabilities of cell-membrane and photosynthesis in cabbage cultivars differing in heat tolerance J. Plant Physiol. 149 729 734 Chen, F. Chen, S